The following two sections provide information about restoring a native NDB backup to a different version of NDB Cluster from the version in which the backup was taken.
In addition, you should consult Section 23.3.7, “Upgrading and Downgrading NDB Cluster”, for other issues you may encounter when attempting to restore an NDB backup to a cluster running a different version of the NDB software.
It is also advisable to review What is New in NDB Cluster 8.0, as well as Section 2.10.4, “Changes in MySQL 8.0”, for other changes between NDB 8.0 and previous versions of NDB Cluster that may be relevant to your particular circumstances.
You may encounter issues when restoring a backup taken from a later version of NDB Cluster to a previous one, due to the use of features which do not exist in the earlier version. Some of these issues are listed here:
utf8mb4_ai_ci character set. Tables created in NDB 8.0 by default use the
utf8mb4_ai_cicharacter set, which is not available in NDB 7.6 and earlier, and so cannot be read by an ndb_restore binary from one of these earlier versions. In such cases, it is necessary to alter any tables using
utf8mb4_ai_ciso that they use a character set supported in the older version prior to performing the backup.
Table metadata format. Due to changes in how the MySQL Server and NDB handle table metadata, tables created or altered using the included MySQL server binary from NDB 8.0 cannot be restored using ndb_restore to NDB 7.6 or an earlier version of NDB Cluster. Such tables use
.sdifiles which are not understood by older versions of mysqld.
A backup taken in NDB 8.0 of tables which were created in NDB 7.6 or earlier, and which have not been altered since upgrading to NDB 8.0, should be restorable to older versions of NDB Cluster.
Since it is possible to restore metadata and table data separately, you can in such cases restore the table schemas from a dump made using mysqldump, or by executing the necessary
CREATE TABLEstatements manually, then import only the table data using ndb_restore with the
Multi-threaded backups. Multi-threaded backups taken in NDB 8.0 can be restored to an cluster running an earlier version of
NDBin either of the following two ways:
Using an ndb_restore binary from NDB 8.0, perform a parallel restore. See Section 184.108.40.206.1, “Restoring a parallel backup in parallel”.
Restore the backups serially; in this case, a later version of ndb_restore is not required. See Section 220.127.116.11.2, “Restoring a parallel backup serially”.
Encrypted backups. Encrypted backups created in NDB 8.0.22 and later cannot be restored using ndb_restore from NDB 8.0.21 or earlier.
NDB_STORED_USER privilege. The
NDB_STORED_USERprivilege is supported only in NDB 8.0.
Maximum number of data nodes. NDB Cluster 8.0 supports up to 144 data nodes, while earlier versions support a maximum of only 48 data nodes. See Section 18.104.22.168.1, “Restoring to Fewer Nodes Than the Original”, for information with situations in which this incompatibility causes an issue.
In general, it should be possible to restore a backup
created using the ndb_mgm client
START BACKUP command in
an older version of NDB to a newer version, provided that
you use the ndb_restore binary that comes
with the newer version. (It may be possible to use the older
version of ndb_restore, but this is not
recommended.) Additional potential issues are listed here:
When restoring the metadata from a backup (
--restore-metaoption), ndb_restore normally attempts to reproduce the captured table schema exactly as it was when the backup was taken.
Tables created in versions of NDB prior to 8.0 use
.frmfiles for their metadata. These files can be read by the mysqld in NDB 8.0, which can use the information contained therein to create the
.sdifiles used by the MySQL data dictionary in later versions.
When restoring an older backup to a newer version of NDB, it may not be possible to take advantage of newer features such as hashmap partitioning, greater number of hashmap buckets, read backup, and different partitioning layouts. For this reason, it may be preferable to restore older schemas using mysqldump and the mysql client, which allows NDB to make use of the new schema features.
Tables using the old temporal types which did not support fractional seconds (used prior to MySQL 5.6.4 and NDB 7.3.31) cannot be restored to NDB 8.0 using ndb_restore. You can check such tables using
CHECK TABLE, and then upgrade them to the newer temporal column format, if necessary, using
REPAIR TABLEin the mysql client; this must be done prior to taking the backup. See Section 2.10.5, “Preparing Your Installation for Upgrade”, for more information.
You also restore such tables using a dump created with mysqldump.
Distributed grant tables created in NDB 7.6 and earlier are not supported in NDB 8.0. Such tables can be restored to an NDB 8.0 cluster, but they have no effect on access control.