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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  InnoDB Cluster  /  Introducing InnoDB Cluster

21.1 Introducing InnoDB Cluster

MySQL InnoDB cluster provides a complete high availability solution for MySQL. MySQL Shell includes AdminAPI which enables you to easily configure and administer a group of at least three MySQL server instances to function as an InnoDB cluster. Each MySQL server instance runs MySQL Group Replication, which provides the mechanism to replicate data within InnoDB clusters, with built-in failover. AdminAPI removes the need to work directly with Group Replication in InnoDB clusters, but for more information see Chapter 18, Group Replication which explains the details. MySQL Router can automatically configure itself based on the cluster you deploy, connecting client applications transparently to the server instances. In the event of an unexpected failure of a server instance the cluster reconfigures automatically. In the default single-primary mode, an InnoDB cluster has a single read-write server instance - the primary. Multiple secondary server instances are replicas of the primary. If the primary fails, a secondary is automatically promoted to the role of primary. MySQL Router detects this and forwards client applications to the new primary. Advanced users can also configure a cluster to have multiple-primaries.

Important

InnoDB cluster does not provide support for MySQL NDB Cluster. NDB Cluster depends on the NDB storage engine as well as a number of programs specific to NDB Cluster which are not furnished with MySQL Server 8.0; NDB is available only as part of the MySQL NDB Cluster distribution. In addition, the MySQL server binary (mysqld) that is supplied with MySQL Server 8.0 cannot be used with NDB Cluster. For more information about MySQL NDB Cluster, see Chapter 22, MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0. Section 22.1.6, “MySQL Server Using InnoDB Compared with NDB Cluster”, provides information about the differences between the InnoDB and NDB storage engines.

The following diagram shows an overview of how these technologies work together:

Figure 21.1 InnoDB cluster overview

Three MySQL servers are grouped together as a high availability cluster. One of the servers is the read/write primary instance, and the other two are read-only secondary instances. Group Replication is used to replicate data from the primary instance to the secondary instances. MySQL Router connects client applications (in this example, a MySQL Connector) to the primary instance.

Using AdminAPI

MySQL Shell includes the AdminAPI, which is accessed through the dba global variable and its associated methods. The dba variable's methods enable you to deploy, configure, and administer InnoDB clusters. For example, use the dba.createCluster() method to create an InnoDB cluster.

Important

MySQL Shell enables you to connect to servers over a socket connection, but AdminAPI requires TCP connections to a server instance. Socket based connections are not supported in AdminAPI.

MySQL Shell provides online help for the AdminAPI. To list all available dba commands, use the dba.help() method. For online help on a specific method, use the general format object.help('methodname'). For example:

mysql-js> dba.help('getCluster')

Retrieves a cluster from the Metadata Store.

SYNTAX

  dba.getCluster([name][, options])

WHERE

  name: Parameter to specify the name of the cluster to be returned.
  options: Dictionary with additional options.

RETURNS

  The cluster object identified by the given name or the default cluster.

DESCRIPTION

If name is not specified or is null, the default cluster will be returned.

If name is specified, and no cluster with the indicated name is found, an error
will be raised.

The options dictionary accepts the connectToPrimary option,which defaults to
true and indicates the shell to automatically connect to the primary member of
the cluster.

EXCEPTIONS

  MetadataError in the following scenarios:

   - If the Metadata is inaccessible.
   - If the Metadata update operation failed.

  ArgumentError in the following scenarios:

   - If the Cluster name is empty.
   - If the Cluster name is invalid.
   - If the Cluster does not exist.

  RuntimeError in the following scenarios:

   - If the current connection cannot be used for Group Replication.

MySQL Shell can optionally log the SQL statements used by AdminAPI operations (with the exception of sandbox operations), and can also display them in the terminal as they are executed. To configure MySQL Shell to do this, see Logging AdminAPI Operations.

Specifying Instances

One of the core concepts of administering InnoDB cluster is understanding connections to the MySQL instances which make up your cluster. The requirements for connections to the instances when administering your InnoDB cluster, and for the connections between the instances themselves, are:

  • only TCP/IP connections are supported, using Unix sockets or named pipes is not supported. InnoDB cluster is intended to be used in a local area network, running a cluster of instances connected over a wide area network is not recommended.

  • only MySQL Classic protocol connections are supported, X Protocol is not supported.

    Tip

    Your applications can use X Protocol, this requirement is for AdminAPI.

MySQL Shell enables you to work with various APIs, and supports specifying connections as explained in Section 4.2.5, “Connecting to the Server Using URI-Like Strings or Key-Value Pairs”. The Additional Connection parameters are not supported by InnoDB cluster. You can specify connections using either URI-type strings, or key-value pairs. This documentation demonstrates AdminAPI using URI-type connection strings. For example, to connect as the user myuser to the MySQL server instance at www.example.com, on port 3306 use the connection string:

myuser@www.example.com:3306

To use this connection string with an AdminAPI operation such as dba.configureInstance(), you need to ensure the connection string is interpreted as a string, for example by surrounding the connection string with either single (') or double (") quote marks. If you are using the JavaScript implementation of AdminAPI issue:

MySQL JS > dba.configureInstance('myuser@www.example.com:3306')

Assuming you are running MySQL Shell in the default interactive mode, you are prompted for your password. AdminAPI supports MySQL Shell's Pluggable Password Store, and once you store the password you used to connect to the instance you are no longer prompted for it.