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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Files Created by CREATE TABLE

13.1.20.2 Files Created by CREATE TABLE

For an InnoDB table created in a file-per-table tablespace or general tablespace, table data and associated indexes are stored in an ibd file in the database directory. When an InnoDB table is created in the system tablespace, table data and indexes are stored in the ibdata* files that represent the system tablespace. The innodb_file_per_table option controls whether tables are created in file-per-table tablespaces or the system tablespace, by default. The TABLESPACE option can be used to place a table in a file-per-table tablespace, general tablespace, or the system tablespace, regardless of the innodb_file_per_table setting.

For MyISAM tables, the storage engine creates data and index files. Thus, for each MyISAM table tbl_name, there are two disk files.

File Purpose
tbl_name.MYD Data file
tbl_name.MYI Index file

Chapter 16, Alternative Storage Engines, describes what files each storage engine creates to represent tables. If a table name contains special characters, the names for the table files contain encoded versions of those characters as described in Section 9.2.3, “Mapping of Identifiers to File Names”.