The redo log is a disk-based data structure used during crash recovery to correct data written by incomplete transactions. During normal operations, the redo log encodes requests to change table data that result from SQL statements or low-level API calls. Modifications that did not finish updating the data files before an unexpected shutdown are replayed automatically during initialization, and before the connections are accepted. For information about the role of the redo log in crash recovery, see Section 15.17.2, “InnoDB Recovery”.
By default, the redo log is physically represented on disk by two
ib_logfile1. MySQL writes to the redo log
files in a circular fashion. Data in the redo log is encoded in
terms of records affected; this data is collectively referred to
as redo. The passage of data through the redo log is represented
by an ever-increasing LSN value.
For information about data-at-rest encryption for redo logs, see Redo Log Encryption.
To change the number or the size of redo log files, perform the following steps:
InnoDB detects that the
from the redo log file size, it writes a log checkpoint, closes
and removes the old log files, creates new log files at the
requested size, and opens the new log files.
InnoDB, like any other
ACID-compliant database engine,
flushes the redo log of a
transaction before it is committed.
uses group commit
functionality to group multiple such flush requests together to
avoid one flush for each commit. With group commit,
InnoDB issues a single write to the log file
to perform the commit action for multiple user transactions that
commit at about the same time, significantly improving
For more information about performance of
COMMIT and other transactional operations,
see Section 8.5.2, “Optimizing InnoDB Transaction Management”.