Full-text indexes are created on text-based columns
TEXT columns) to speed up queries
and DML operations on data contained within those columns.
A full-text index is defined as part of a
CREATE TABLE statement or added to
an existing table using
Full-text search is performed using
... AGAINST syntax. For usage information, see
Section 12.9, “Full-Text Search Functions”.
InnoDB full-text indexes are described under
the following topics in this section:
InnoDB full-text indexes have an inverted
index design. Inverted indexes store a list of words, and for
each word, a list of documents that the word appears in. To
support proximity search, position information for each word is
also stored, as a byte offset.
InnoDB full-text index is created, a
set of index tables is created, as shown in the following
mysql> CREATE TABLE opening_lines ( id INT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, opening_line TEXT(500), author VARCHAR(200), title VARCHAR(200), FULLTEXT idx (opening_line) ) ENGINE=InnoDB; mysql> SELECT table_id, name, space from INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_TABLES WHERE name LIKE 'test/%'; +----------+----------------------------------------------------+-------+ | table_id | name | space | +----------+----------------------------------------------------+-------+ | 333 | test/fts_0000000000000147_00000000000001c9_index_1 | 289 | | 334 | test/fts_0000000000000147_00000000000001c9_index_2 | 290 | | 335 | test/fts_0000000000000147_00000000000001c9_index_3 | 291 | | 336 | test/fts_0000000000000147_00000000000001c9_index_4 | 292 | | 337 | test/fts_0000000000000147_00000000000001c9_index_5 | 293 | | 338 | test/fts_0000000000000147_00000000000001c9_index_6 | 294 | | 330 | test/fts_0000000000000147_being_deleted | 286 | | 331 | test/fts_0000000000000147_being_deleted_cache | 287 | | 332 | test/fts_0000000000000147_config | 288 | | 328 | test/fts_0000000000000147_deleted | 284 | | 329 | test/fts_0000000000000147_deleted_cache | 285 | | 327 | test/opening_lines | 283 | +----------+----------------------------------------------------+-------+
The first six index tables comprise the inverted index and are
referred to as auxiliary index tables. When incoming documents
are tokenized, the individual words (also referred to as
“tokens”) are inserted into the index tables along
with position information and an associated
DOC_ID. The words are fully sorted and
partitioned among the six index tables based on the character
set sort weight of the word's first character.
The inverted index is partitioned into six auxiliary index
tables to support parallel index creation. By default, two
threads tokenize, sort, and insert words and associated data
into the index tables. The number of threads that perform this
work is configurable using the
variable. Consider increasing the number of threads when
creating full-text indexes on large tables.
Auxiliary index table names are prefixed with
fts_ and postfixed with
auxiliary index table is associated with the indexed table by a
hex value in the auxiliary index table name that matches the
table_id of the indexed table. For example,
table_id of the
test/opening_lines table is
327, for which the hex value is 0x147. As
shown in the preceding example, the “147” hex value
appears in the names of auxiliary index tables that are
associated with the
A hex value representing the
index_id of the
full-text index also appears in auxiliary index table names. For
example, in the auxiliary table name
the hex value
1c9 has a decimal value of 457.
The index defined on the
idx) can be identified by querying the
table for this value (457).
mysql> SELECT index_id, name, table_id, space from INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_INDEXES WHERE index_id=457; +----------+------+----------+-------+ | index_id | name | table_id | space | +----------+------+----------+-------+ | 457 | idx | 327 | 283 | +----------+------+----------+-------+
Index tables are stored in their own tablespace if the primary table is created in a file-per-table tablespace. Otherwise, index tables are stored in the tablespace where the indexed table resides.
The other index tables shown in the preceding example are referred to as common index tables and are used for deletion handling and storing the internal state of full-text indexes. Unlike the inverted index tables, which are created for each full-text index, this set of tables is common to all full-text indexes created on a particular table.
Common index tables are retained even if full-text indexes are
dropped. When a full-text index is dropped, the
FTS_DOC_ID column that was created for the
index is retained, as removing the
column would require rebuilding the previously indexed table.
Common index tables are required to manage the
Contain the document IDs (DOC_ID) for documents that are deleted but whose data is not yet removed from the full-text index. The
fts_*_deleted_cacheis the in-memory version of the
Contain the document IDs (DOC_ID) for documents that are deleted and whose data is currently in the process of being removed from the full-text index. The
fts_*_being_deleted_cachetable is the in-memory version of the
Stores information about the internal state of the full-text index. Most importantly, it stores the
FTS_SYNCED_DOC_ID, which identifies documents that have been parsed and flushed to disk. In case of crash recovery,
FTS_SYNCED_DOC_IDvalues are used to identify documents that have not been flushed to disk so that the documents can be re-parsed and added back to the full-text index cache. To view the data in this table, query the Information Schema
When a document is inserted, it is tokenized, and the individual
words and associated data are inserted into the full-text index.
This process, even for small documents, can result in numerous
small insertions into the auxiliary index tables, making
concurrent access to these tables a point of contention. To
avoid this problem,
InnoDB uses a full-text
index cache to temporarily cache index table insertions for
recently inserted rows. This in-memory cache structure holds
insertions until the cache is full and then batch flushes them
to disk (to the auxiliary index tables). You can query the
INNODB_FT_INDEX_CACHE table to view
tokenized data for recently inserted rows.
The caching and batch flushing behavior avoids frequent updates to auxiliary index tables, which could result in concurrent access issues during busy insert and update times. The batching technique also avoids multiple insertions for the same word, and minimizes duplicate entries. Instead of flushing each word individually, insertions for the same word are merged and flushed to disk as a single entry, improving insertion efficiency while keeping auxiliary index tables as small as possible.
variable is used to configure the full-text index cache size (on
a per-table basis), which affects how often the full-text index
cache is flushed. You can also define a global full-text index
cache size limit for all tables in a given instance using the
The full-text index cache stores the same information as auxiliary index tables. However, the full-text index cache only caches tokenized data for recently inserted rows. The data that is already flushed to disk (to the auxiliary index tables) is not brought back into the full-text index cache when queried. The data in auxiliary index tables is queried directly, and results from the auxiliary index tables are merged with results from the full-text index cache before being returned.
InnoDB uses a unique document identifier
referred to as the
DOC_ID to map words in the
full-text index to document records where the word appears. The
mapping requires an
FTS_DOC_ID column on the
indexed table. If an
FTS_DOC_ID column is not
InnoDB automatically adds a hidden
FTS_DOC_ID column when the full-text index is
created. The following example demonstrates this behavior.
The following table definition does not include an
mysql> CREATE TABLE opening_lines ( id INT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, opening_line TEXT(500), author VARCHAR(200), title VARCHAR(200) ) ENGINE=InnoDB;
When you create a full-text index on the table using
CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX syntax, a warning is
returned which reports that
rebuilding the table to add the
mysql> CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX idx ON opening_lines(opening_line); Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.19 sec) Records: 0 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 1 mysql> SHOW WARNINGS; +---------+------+--------------------------------------------------+ | Level | Code | Message | +---------+------+--------------------------------------------------+ | Warning | 124 | InnoDB rebuilding table to add column FTS_DOC_ID | +---------+------+--------------------------------------------------+
The same warning is returned when using
ALTER TABLE to add a full-text
index to a table that does not have an
FTS_DOC_ID column. If you create a full-text
CREATE TABLE time and do
not specify an
InnoDB adds a hidden
FTS_DOC_ID column, without warning.
FTS_DOC_ID column at
CREATE TABLE time is less
expensive than creating a full-text index on a table that is
already loaded with data. If an
column is defined on a table prior to loading data, the table
and its indexes do not have to be rebuilt to add the new column.
If you are not concerned with
INDEX performance, leave out the
FTS_DOC_ID column to have
InnoDB create it for you.
InnoDB creates a hidden
FTS_DOC_ID column along with a unique index
FTS_DOC_ID_INDEX) on the
FTS_DOC_ID column. If you want to create your
FTS_DOC_ID column, the column must be
BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL and named
FTS_DOC_ID (all uppercase), as in the
FTS_DOC_ID column does not need to be
defined as an
AUTO_INCREMENT column, but
doing so could make loading data easier.
mysql> CREATE TABLE opening_lines ( FTS_DOC_ID BIGINT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, opening_line TEXT(500), author VARCHAR(200), title VARCHAR(200) ) ENGINE=InnoDB;
If you choose to define the
yourself, you are responsible for managing the column to avoid
empty or duplicate values.
cannot be reused, which means
values must be ever increasing.
Optionally, you can create the required unique
FTS_DOC_ID_INDEX (all uppercase) on the
mysql> CREATE UNIQUE INDEX FTS_DOC_ID_INDEX on opening_lines(FTS_DOC_ID);
If you do not create the
InnoDB creates it automatically.
FTS_DOC_ID_INDEX cannot be defined as a
descending index because the
parser does not use descending indexes.
The permitted gap between the largest used
FTS_DOC_ID value and new
FTS_DOC_ID value is 65535.
To avoid rebuilding the table, the
column is retained when dropping a full-text index.
Deleting a record that has a full-text index column could result
in numerous small deletions in the auxiliary index tables,
making concurrent access to these tables a point of contention.
To avoid this problem, the
DOC_ID of a
deleted document is logged in a special
FTS_*_DELETED table whenever a record is
deleted from an indexed table, and the indexed record remains in
the full-text index. Before returning query results, information
FTS_*_DELETED table is used to filter
DOC_IDs. The benefit of this
design is that deletions are fast and inexpensive. The drawback
is that the size of the index is not immediately reduced after
deleting records. To remove full-text index entries for deleted
OPTIMIZE TABLE on the indexed
to rebuild the full-text index. For more information, see
Optimizing InnoDB Full-Text Indexes.
InnoDB full-text indexes have special
transaction handling characteristics due its caching and batch
processing behavior. Specifically, updates and insertions on a
full-text index are processed at transaction commit time, which
means that a full-text search can only see committed data. The
following example demonstrates this behavior. The full-text
search only returns a result after the inserted lines are
mysql> CREATE TABLE opening_lines ( id INT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, opening_line TEXT(500), author VARCHAR(200), title VARCHAR(200), FULLTEXT idx (opening_line) ) ENGINE=InnoDB; mysql> BEGIN; mysql> INSERT INTO opening_lines(opening_line,author,title) VALUES ('Call me Ishmael.','Herman Melville','Moby-Dick'), ('A screaming comes across the sky.','Thomas Pynchon','Gravity\'s Rainbow'), ('I am an invisible man.','Ralph Ellison','Invisible Man'), ('Where now? Who now? When now?','Samuel Beckett','The Unnamable'), ('It was love at first sight.','Joseph Heller','Catch-22'), ('All this happened, more or less.','Kurt Vonnegut','Slaughterhouse-Five'), ('Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself.','Virginia Woolf','Mrs. Dalloway'), ('It was a pleasure to burn.','Ray Bradbury','Fahrenheit 451'); mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM opening_lines WHERE MATCH(opening_line) AGAINST('Ishmael'); +----------+ | COUNT(*) | +----------+ | 0 | +----------+ mysql> COMMIT; mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM opening_lines WHERE MATCH(opening_line) AGAINST('Ishmael'); +----------+ | COUNT(*) | +----------+ | 1 | +----------+
You can monitor and examine the special text-processing aspects
InnoDB full-text indexes by querying the
You can also view basic information for full-text indexes and
tables by querying
For more information, see Section 15.15.4, “InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA FULLTEXT Index Tables”.