The online DDL feature provides support for instant and in-place table alterations and concurrent DML. Benefits of this feature include:
Improved responsiveness and availability in busy production environments, where making a table unavailable for minutes or hours is not practical.
For in-place operations, the ability to adjust the balance between performance and concurrency during DDL operations using the
LOCKclause. See The LOCK clause.
Less disk space usage and I/O overhead than the table-copy method.
ALGORITHM=INSTANT support is available for
ADD COLUMN and other operations in MySQL
Typically, you do not need to do anything special to enable online DDL. By default, MySQL performs the operation instantly or in place, as permitted, with as little locking as possible.
You can control aspects of a DDL operation using the
LOCK clauses of
ALTER TABLE statement. These
clauses are placed at the end of the statement, separated from the
table and column specifications by commas. For example:
ALTER TABLE tbl_name ADD PRIMARY KEY (column), ALGORITHM=INPLACE, LOCK=NONE;
LOCK clause may be used for operations that
are performed in place and is useful for fine-tuning the degree of
concurrent access to the table during operations. Only
LOCK=DEFAULT is supported for operations that are
performed instantly. The
ALGORITHM clause is
primarily intended for performance comparisons and as a fallback to
the older table-copying behavior in case you encounter any issues.
To avoid accidentally making the table unavailable for reads, writes, or both, during an in-place
ALTER TABLEoperation, specify a clause on the
ALTER TABLEstatement such as
LOCK=NONE(permit reads and writes) or
LOCK=SHARED(permit reads). The operation halts immediately if the requested level of concurrency is not available.
To compare performance between algorithms, run a statement with
ALGORITHM=COPY. You can also run a statement with the
old_alter_tableconfiguration option enabled to force the use of
To avoid tying up the server with an
ALTER TABLEoperation that copies the table, include
ALGORITHM=INPLACE. The statement halts immediately if it cannot use the specified algorithm.