mysql supports the following options, which
can be specified on the command line or in the
groups of an option file. For information about option files
used by MySQL programs, see Section 4.2.7, “Using Option Files”.
Table 4.8 mysql Options
|--auto-rehash||Enable automatic rehashing|
|--auto-vertical-output||Enable automatic vertical result set display|
|--batch||Do not use history file|
|--binary-as-hex||Display binary values in hexadecimal notation||8.0.2|
|--binary-mode||Disable \r\n - to - \n translation and treatment of \0 as end-of-query|
|--bind-address||Use specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server|
|--character-sets-dir||Directory where character sets are installed|
|--column-names||Write column names in results|
|--column-type-info||Display result set metadata|
|--comments||Whether to retain or strip comments in statements sent to the server|
|--compress||Compress all information sent between client and server|
|--connect-expired-password||Indicate to server that client can handle expired-password sandbox mode.|
|--connect_timeout||Number of seconds before connection timeout|
|--database||The database to use|
|--debug||Write debugging log; supported only if MySQL was built with debugging support|
|--debug-check||Print debugging information when program exits|
|--debug-info||Print debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits|
|--default-auth||Authentication plugin to use|
|--default-character-set||Specify default character set|
|--defaults-extra-file||Read named option file in addition to usual option files|
|--defaults-file||Read only named option file|
|--defaults-group-suffix||Option group suffix value|
|--delimiter||Set the statement delimiter|
|--enable-cleartext-plugin||Enable cleartext authentication plugin|
|--execute||Execute the statement and quit|
|--force||Continue even if an SQL error occurs|
|--get-server-public-key||Request RSA public key from server||8.0.3|
|--help||Display help message and exit|
|--histignore||Patterns specifying which statements to ignore for logging|
|--host||Connect to MySQL server on given host|
|--html||Produce HTML output|
|--ignore-spaces||Ignore spaces after function names|
|--init-command||SQL statement to execute after connecting|
|--line-numbers||Write line numbers for errors|
|--local-infile||Enable or disable for LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE|
|--login-path||Read login path options from .mylogin.cnf|
|--max_allowed_packet||Maximum packet length to send to or receive from server|
|--max_join_size||The automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates|
|--named-commands||Enable named mysql commands|
|--net_buffer_length||Buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication|
|--no-auto-rehash||Disable automatic rehashing|
|--no-beep||Do not beep when errors occur|
|--no-defaults||Read no option files|
|--one-database||Ignore statements except those for the default database named on the command line|
|--pager||Use the given command for paging query output|
|--password||Password to use when connecting to server|
|--pipe||On Windows, connect to server using named pipe|
|--plugin-dir||Directory where plugins are installed|
|--port||TCP/IP port number for connection|
|--print-defaults||Print default options|
|--prompt||Set the prompt to the specified format|
|--protocol||Connection protocol to use|
|--quick||Do not cache each query result|
|--raw||Write column values without escape conversion|
|--reconnect||If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to reconnect|
|--i-am-a-dummy, --safe-updates||Allow only UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify key values|
|--secure-auth||Do not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format||8.0.3|
|--select_limit||The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using --safe-updates|
|--server-public-key-path||Path name to file containing RSA public key|
|--shared-memory-base-name||The name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections|
|--show-warnings||Show warnings after each statement if there are any|
|--sigint-ignore||Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C)|
|--skip-auto-rehash||Disable automatic rehashing|
|--skip-column-names||Do not write column names in results|
|--skip-line-numbers||Skip line numbers for errors|
|--skip-named-commands||Disable named mysql commands|
|--socket||For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file or Windows named pipe to use|
|--ssl-ca||File that contains list of trusted SSL Certificate Authorities|
|--ssl-capath||Directory that contains trusted SSL Certificate Authority certificate files|
|--ssl-cert||File that contains X.509 certificate|
|--ssl-cipher||List of permitted ciphers for connection encryption|
|--ssl-crl||File that contains certificate revocation lists|
|--ssl-crlpath||Directory that contains certificate revocation list files|
|--ssl-fips-mode||Whether to enable FIPS mode on the client side||8.0.11|
|--ssl-key||File that contains X.509 key|
|--ssl-mode||Security state of connection to server|
|--syslog||Log interactive statements to syslog|
|--table||Display output in tabular format|
|--tee||Append a copy of output to named file|
|--tls-version||Protocols permitted for encrypted connections|
|--unbuffered||Flush the buffer after each query|
|--user||MySQL user name to use when connecting to server|
|--version||Display version information and exit|
|--vertical||Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value)|
|--wait||If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of aborting|
|--xml||Produce XML output|
Display a help message and exit.
Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which enables database, table, and column name completion. Use
--disable-auto-rehashto disable rehashing. That causes mysql to start faster, but you must issue the
rehashcommand or its
\#shortcut if you want to use name completion.
To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the name is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press Tab again to see the possible names that begin with what you have typed so far. Completion does not occur if there is no default database.Note
This feature requires a MySQL client that is compiled with the readline library. Typically, the readline library is not available on Windows.
Cause result sets to be displayed vertically if they are too wide for the current window, and using normal tabular format otherwise. (This applies to statements terminated by
Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.
Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see the description for the
When this option is given, mysql displays binary data using hexadecimal notation (
0x). This occurs whether the overall output dislay format is tabular, vertical, HTML, or XML.
This option helps when processing mysqlbinlog output that may contain
BLOBvalues. By default, mysql translates
\r\nin statement strings to
\0as the statement terminator.
--binary-modedisables both features. It also disables all mysql commands except
delimiterin non-interactive mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded using the
On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.
The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.14, “Character Set Configuration”.
Write column names in results.
Display result set metadata.
The mysql client always passes optimizer hints to the server, regardless of whether this option is given.
Comment stripping is deprecated. This feature and the options to control it will be removed in a future MySQL release.
Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.
Indicate to the server that the client can handle sandbox mode if the account used to connect has an expired password. This can be useful for noninteractive invocations of mysql because normally the server disconnects noninteractive clients that attempt to connect using an account with an expired password. (See Section 6.3.9, “Server Handling of Expired Passwords”.)
The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.
Write a debugging log. A typical
d:t:o,. The default is
This option is available only if MySQL was built using
WITH_DEBUG. MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this option.
Print some debugging information when the program exits.
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.
A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.10, “Pluggable Authentication”.
charset_nameas the default character set for the client and connection.
This option can be useful if the operating system uses one character set and the mysql client by default uses another. In this case, output may be formatted incorrectly. You can usually fix such issues by using this option to force the client to use the system character set instead.
For more information, see Section 10.4, “Connection Character Sets and Collations”, and Section 10.14, “Character Set Configuration”.
Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
file_nameis interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.
Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
file_nameis interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.
Exception: Even with
--defaults-file, client programs read
Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of
str. For example, mysql normally reads the
[mysql]groups. If the
--defaults-group-suffix=_otheroption is given, mysql also reads the
Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon character (
Disable named commands. Use the
\*form only, or use named commands only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (
;). mysql starts with this option enabled by default. However, even with this option, long-format commands still work from the first line. See Section 188.8.131.52, “mysql Commands”.
mysql_clear_passwordcleartext authentication plugin. (See Section 184.108.40.206, “Client-Side Cleartext Pluggable Authentication”.)
Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like that produced with
--batch. See Section 4.2.5, “Using Options on the Command Line”, for some examples. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.
Continue even if an SQL error occurs.
Request from the server the public key required for RSA key pair-based password exchange. This option applies to clients that that authenticate with the
caching_sha2_passwordauthentication plugin. For that plugin, the server does not send the public key unless requested. This option is ignored for accounts that do not authenticate with that plugin. It is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is the case when the client connects to the server using a secure connection.
For information about the
caching_sha2_passwordplugin, see Section 220.127.116.11, “Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.
A colon-separated list of one or more patterns specifying statements to ignore for logging purposes. These patterns are added to the default pattern list (
"*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*"). The value specified for this option affects logging of statements written to the history file, and to
--syslogoption is given. For more information, see Section 18.104.22.168, “mysql Logging”.
Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.
Produce HTML output.
SQL statement to execute after connecting to the server. If auto-reconnect is enabled, the statement is executed again after reconnection occurs.
Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with
Enable or disable
LOAD DATA INFILE. For mysql, this capability is disabled by default. With no value, the option enables
LOCAL. The option may be given as
--local-infile=1to explicitly disable or enable
LOCAL. Enabling local data loading also requires that the server permits it; see Section 6.1.6, “Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL”
Read options from the named login path in the
.mylogin.cnflogin path file. A “login path” is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See Section 4.6.7, “mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility”.
Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are permitted, not just short-format commands. For example,
\qboth are recognized. Use
--skip-named-commandsto disable named commands. See Section 22.214.171.124, “mysql Commands”.
This has the same effect as
--skip-auto-rehash. See the description for
Do not beep when errors occur.
Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file,
--no-defaultscan be used to prevent them from being read.
The exception is that the
.mylogin.cnffile, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when
--no-defaultsis used. (
.mylogin.cnfis created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See Section 4.6.7, “mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility”.)
Ignore statements except those that occur while the default database is the one named on the command line. This option is rudimentary and should be used with care. Statement filtering is based only on
Initially, mysql executes statements in the input because specifying a database
db_nameon the command line is equivalent to inserting
USEat the beginning of the input. Then, for each
USEstatement encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following statements depending on whether the database named is the one on the command line. The content of the statements is immaterial.
Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:
DELETE FROM db2.t2; USE db2; DROP TABLE db1.t1; CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT); USE db1; INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1); CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);
DELETEstatement is executed because the default database is
db1, even though the statement names a table in a different database.
Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is omitted, the default pager is the value of your
PAGERenvironment variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive mode. To disable paging, use
--skip-pager. Section 126.96.36.199, “mysql Commands”, discusses output paging further.
The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (
-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the
passwordvalue following the
-poption on the command line, mysql prompts for one.
Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section 188.8.131.52, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.
On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.
The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the
--default-authoption is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysql does not find it. See Section 6.3.10, “Pluggable Authentication”.
The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.
Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.
Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is
mysql>. The special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in Section 184.108.40.206, “mysql Commands”.
The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.
Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received. This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.
For tabular output, the “boxing” around columns enables one column value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular output (such as is produced in batch mode or when the
--silentoption is given), special characters are escaped in the output so they can be identified easily. Newline, tab,
NUL, and backslash are written as
--rawoption disables this character escaping.
The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular output and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:
% mysql mysql> SELECT CHAR(92); +----------+ | CHAR(92) | +----------+ | \ | +----------+ % mysql -s mysql> SELECT CHAR(92); CHAR(92) \\ % mysql -s -r mysql> SELECT CHAR(92); CHAR(92) \
If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use
If this option is enabled,
DELETEstatements that do not use a key in the
WHEREclause or a
LIMITclause produce an error. In addition, restrictions are placed on
SELECTstatements that produce (or are estimated to produce) very large result sets. If you have set this option in an option file, you can use
--skip-safe-updateson the command line to override it. For more information about this option, see Section 220.127.116.11.4, “Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates)”.
This option was removed in MySQL 8.0.3.
The path name to a file containing a client-side copy of the public key required by the server for RSA key pair-based password exchange. The file must be in PEM format. This option applies to clients that authenticate with the
caching_sha2_passwordauthentication plugin. This option is ignored for accounts that do not authenticate with one of those plugins. It is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is the case when the client connects to the server using a secure connection.
This option is available only if MySQL was built using OpenSSL.
For information about the
caching_sha2_passwordplugins, see Section 18.104.22.168, “SHA-256 Pluggable Authentication”, and Section 22.214.171.124, “Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.
On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is
MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case-sensitive.
The server must be started with the
--shared-memoryoption to enable shared-memory connections.
Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any. This option applies to interactive and batch mode.
SIGINTsignals (typically the result of typing Control+C).
Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple times to produce less and less output.
This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see the description for the
Do not write column names in results.
Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to compare result files that include error messages.
For connections to
localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.
Options that begin with
--sslspecify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Section 6.4.2, “Command Options for Encrypted Connections”.
Controls whether to enable FIPS mode on the client side. The
--ssl-fips-modeoption differs from other
--ssl-options in that it is not used to establish encrypted connections, but rather to affect which cryptographic operations are permitted. See Section 6.6, “FIPS Support”.
--ssl-fips-modevalues are permitted:
OFF: Disable FIPS mode.
ON: Enable FIPS mode.
STRICT: Enable “strict” FIPS mode.
This option causes mysql to send interactive statements to the system logging facility. On Unix, this is
syslog; on Windows, it is the Windows Event Log. The destination where logged messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the destination is often the
Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using
--syslog. This output is formatted for readability; each logged message actually takes a single line.
Mar 7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient: SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23, DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;' Mar 7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient: SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23, DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'
For more information, see Section 126.96.36.199, “mysql Logging”.
Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive use, but can be used to produce table output in batch mode.
Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only in interactive mode. Section 188.8.131.52, “mysql Commands”, discusses tee files further.
The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 6.4.6, “Encrypted Connection Protocols and Ciphers”.
Flush the buffer after each query.
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.
Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This option can be given multiple times to produce more and more output. (For example,
-v -v -vproduces table output format even in batch mode.)
Display version information and exit.
Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value). Without this option, you can specify vertical output for individual statements by terminating them with
If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of aborting.
Produce XML output.
The output when
--xmlis used with mysql matches that of mysqldump
--xml. See Section 4.5.4, “mysqldump — A Database Backup Program”, for details.
The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:
shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" <?xml version="1.0"?> <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"> <row> <field name="Variable_name">version</field> <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field> </row> <row> <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field> <field name="Value">Source distribution</field> </row> <row> <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field> <field name="Value">i686</field> </row> <row> <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field> <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field> </row> </resultset>
(See Bug #25946.)
You can also set the following variables by using
The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is
The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default is 16MB, the maximum is 1GB.
The automatic limit for rows in a join when using
--safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000,000.)
The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default value is 16KB.)