The mysqlcheck client performs table maintenance: It checks, repairs, optimizes, or analyzes tables.
Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions
while it is being processed, although for check operations, the
table is locked with a
READ lock only (see
Section 13.3.6, “LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax”, for more information about
Table maintenance operations can be time-consuming, particularly
for large tables. If you use the
--all-databases option to
process all tables in one or more databases, an invocation of
mysqlcheck might take a long time. (This is
also true for mysql_upgrade because that
program invokes mysqlcheck to check all
tables and repair them if necessary.)
mysqlcheck uses the SQL statements
ANALYZE TABLE, and
OPTIMIZE TABLE in a convenient
way for the user. It determines which statements to use for the
operation you want to perform, and then sends the statements to
the server to be executed. For details about which storage
engines each statement works with, see the descriptions for
those statements in Section 13.7.3, “Table Maintenance Statements”.
All storage engines do not necessarily support all four
maintenance operations. In such cases, an error message is
displayed. For example, if
test.t is an
MEMORY table, an attempt to check it produces
shell> mysqlcheck test t test.t note : The storage engine for the table doesn't support check
If mysqlcheck is unable to repair a table,
see Section 2.11.3, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair
strategies. This will be the case, for example, for
InnoDB tables, which can be checked with
CHECK TABLE, but not repaired
It is best to make a backup of a table before performing a table repair operation; under some circumstances the operation might cause data loss. Possible causes include but are not limited to file system errors.
There are three general ways to invoke mysqlcheck:
shell> mysqlcheck [options] db_name [tbl_name ...] shell> mysqlcheck [options] --databases db_name ... shell> mysqlcheck [options] --all-databases
mysqlcheck has a special feature compared to
other client programs. The default behavior of checking tables
--check) can be changed by
renaming the binary. If you want to have a tool that repairs
tables by default, you should just make a copy of
mysqlrepair, or make a symbolic link to
mysqlrepair. If you invoke
mysqlrepair, it repairs tables.
The names shown in the following table can be used to change mysqlcheck default behavior.
|mysqlrepair||The default option is
|mysqlanalyze||The default option is
|mysqloptimize||The default option is
mysqlcheck supports the following options,
which can be specified on the command line or in the
groups of an option file. For information about option files
used by MySQL programs, see Section 4.2.7, “Using Option Files”.
Table 4.10 mysqlcheck Options
|--all-databases||Check all tables in all databases|
|--all-in-1||Execute a single statement for each database that names all the tables from that database|
|--analyze||Analyze the tables|
|--auto-repair||If a checked table is corrupted, automatically fix it|
|--bind-address||Use specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server|
|--character-sets-dir||Directory where character sets are installed|
|--check||Check the tables for errors|
|--check-only-changed||Check only tables that have changed since the last check|
|--check-upgrade||Invoke CHECK TABLE with the FOR UPGRADE option|
|--compress||Compress all information sent between client and server|
|--databases||Interpret all arguments as database names|
|--debug||Write debugging log|
|--debug-check||Print debugging information when program exits|
|--debug-info||Print debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits|
|--default-auth||Authentication plugin to use|
|--default-character-set||Specify default character set|
|--defaults-extra-file||Read named option file in addition to usual option files|
|--defaults-file||Read only named option file|
|--defaults-group-suffix||Option group suffix value|
|--enable-cleartext-plugin||Enable cleartext authentication plugin|
|--extended||Check and repair tables|
|--fast||Check only tables that have not been closed properly|
|--force||Continue even if an SQL error occurs|
|--get-server-public-key||Request RSA public key from server||8.0.3|
|--help||Display help message and exit|
|--host||Connect to MySQL server on given host|
|--login-path||Read login path options from .mylogin.cnf|
|--medium-check||Do a check that is faster than an --extended operation|
|--no-defaults||Read no option files|
|--optimize||Optimize the tables|
|--password||Password to use when connecting to server|
|--pipe||On Windows, connect to server using named pipe|
|--plugin-dir||Directory where plugins are installed|
|--port||TCP/IP port number for connection|
|--print-defaults||Print default options|
|--protocol||Connection protocol to use|
|--quick||The fastest method of checking|
|--repair||Perform a repair that can fix almost anything except unique keys that are not unique|
|--secure-auth||Do not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format||8.0.3|
|--server-public-key-path||Path name to file containing RSA public key||8.0.4|
|--shared-memory-base-name||The name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections|
|--skip-database||Omit this database from performed operations|
|--socket||For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use|
|--ssl-ca||File that contains list of trusted SSL Certificate Authorities|
|--ssl-capath||Directory that contains trusted SSL Certificate Authority certificate files|
|--ssl-cert||File that contains X.509 certificate|
|--ssl-cipher||List of permitted ciphers for connection encryption|
|--ssl-crl||File that contains certificate revocation lists|
|--ssl-crlpath||Directory that contains certificate revocation list files|
|--ssl-fips-mode||Whether to enable FIPS mode on the client side||8.0.11|
|--ssl-key||File that contains X.509 key|
|--ssl-mode||Security state of connection to server|
|--tables||Overrides the --databases or -B option|
|--tls-version||Protocols permitted for encrypted connections|
|--use-frm||For repair operations on MyISAM tables|
|--user||MySQL user name to use when connecting to server|
|--version||Display version information and exit|
|--write-binlog||Log ANALYZE, OPTIMIZE, REPAIR statements to binary log. --skip-write-binlog adds NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG to these statements.|
Display a help message and exit.
Check all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the
--databasesoption and naming all the databases on the command line, except that the
performance_schemadatabases are not checked. They can be checked by explicitly naming them with the
Instead of issuing a statement for each table, execute a single statement for each database that names all the tables from that database to be processed.
Analyze the tables.
If a checked table is corrupted, automatically fix it. Any necessary repairs are done after all tables have been checked.
On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.
The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.14, “Character Set Configuration”.
Check the tables for errors. This is the default operation.
Check only tables that have changed since the last check or that have not been closed properly.
CHECK TABLEwith the
FOR UPGRADEoption to check tables for incompatibilities with the current version of the server.
Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.
Process all tables in the named databases. Normally, mysqlcheck treats the first name argument on the command line as a database name and any following names as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as database names.
Write a debugging log. A typical
d:t:o,. The default is
Print some debugging information when the program exits.
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.
charset_nameas the default character set. See Section 10.14, “Character Set Configuration”.
Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
file_nameis interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.
Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
file_nameis interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.
Exception: Even with
--defaults-file, client programs read
Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of
str. For example, mysqlcheck normally reads the
[mysqlcheck]groups. If the
--defaults-group-suffix=_otheroption is given, mysqlcheck also reads the
If you are using this option to check tables, it ensures that they are 100% consistent but takes a long time.
If you are using this option to repair tables, it runs an extended repair that may not only take a long time to execute, but may produce a lot of garbage rows also!
A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.10, “Pluggable Authentication”.
mysql_clear_passwordcleartext authentication plugin. (See Section 22.214.171.124, “Client-Side Cleartext Pluggable Authentication”.)
Check only tables that have not been closed properly.
Continue even if an SQL error occurs.
Request from the server the public key required for RSA key pair-based password exchange. This option applies to clients that that authenticate with the
caching_sha2_passwordauthentication plugin. For that plugin, the server does not send the public key unless requested. This option is ignored for accounts that do not authenticate with that plugin. It is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is the case when the client connects to the server using a secure connection.
For information about the
caching_sha2_passwordplugin, see Section 126.96.36.199, “Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.
Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.
Read options from the named login path in the
.mylogin.cnflogin path file. A “login path” is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See Section 4.6.7, “mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility”.
Do a check that is faster than an
--extendedoperation. This finds only 99.99% of all errors, which should be good enough in most cases.
Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file,
--no-defaultscan be used to prevent them from being read.
The exception is that the
.mylogin.cnffile, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when
--no-defaultsis used. (
.mylogin.cnfis created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See Section 4.6.7, “mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility”.)
Optimize the tables.
The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (
-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the
passwordvalue following the
-poption on the command line, mysqlcheck prompts for one.
Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section 188.8.131.52, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.
On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.
The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the
--default-authoption is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqlcheck does not find it. See Section 6.3.10, “Pluggable Authentication”.
The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.
Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.
The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.
If you are using this option to check tables, it prevents the check from scanning the rows to check for incorrect links. This is the fastest check method.
If you are using this option to repair tables, it tries to repair only the index tree. This is the fastest repair method.
Perform a repair that can fix almost anything except unique keys that are not unique.
This option was removed in MySQL 8.0.3.
The path name to a file containing a client-side copy of the public key required by the server for RSA key pair-based password exchange. The file must be in PEM format. This option applies to clients that authenticate with the
caching_sha2_passwordauthentication plugin. This option is ignored for accounts that do not authenticate with one of those plugins. It is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is the case when the client connects to the server using a secure connection.
sha256_password, this option applies only if MySQL was built using OpenSSL.
For information about the
caching_sha2_passwordplugins, see Section 184.108.40.206, “SHA-256 Pluggable Authentication”, and Section 220.127.116.11, “Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.
On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is
MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case-sensitive.
The server must be started with the
--shared-memoryoption to enable shared-memory connections.
Silent mode. Print only error messages.
Do not include the named database (case-sensitive) in the operations performed by mysqlcheck.
For connections to
localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.
Options that begin with
--sslspecify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Section 6.4.2, “Command Options for Encrypted Connections”.
Controls whether to enable FIPS mode on the client side. The
--ssl-fips-modeoption differs from other
--ssl-options in that it is not used to establish encrypted connections, but rather to affect which cryptographic operations are permitted. See Section 6.6, “FIPS Support”.
--ssl-fips-modevalues are permitted:
OFF: Disable FIPS mode.
ON: Enable FIPS mode.
STRICT: Enable “strict” FIPS mode.
-Boption. All name arguments following the option are regarded as table names.
The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 6.4.6, “Encrypted Connection Protocols and Ciphers”.
For repair operations on
MyISAMtables, get the table structure from the data dictionary so that the table can be repaired even if the
.MYIheader is corrupted.
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.
Verbose mode. Print information about the various stages of program operation.
Display version information and exit.
This option is enabled by default, so that
OPTIMIZE TABLE, and
REPAIR TABLEstatements generated by mysqlcheck are written to the binary log. Use
NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOGto be added to the statements so that they are not logged. Use the
--skip-write-binlogwhen these statements should not be sent to replication slaves or run when using the binary logs for recovery from backup.