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17.5.1.35 Replication and Triggers

With statement-based replication, triggers executed on the source also execute on the replica. With row-based replication, triggers executed on the source do not execute on the replica. Instead, the row changes on the source resulting from trigger execution are replicated and applied on the replica.

This behavior is by design. If under row-based replication the replica applied the triggers as well as the row changes caused by them, the changes would in effect be applied twice on the replica, leading to different data on the source and the replica.

If you want triggers to execute on both the source and the replica, perhaps because you have different triggers on the source and replica, you must use statement-based replication. However, to enable replica-side triggers, it is not necessary to use statement-based replication exclusively. It is sufficient to switch to statement-based replication only for those statements where you want this effect, and to use row-based replication the rest of the time.

A statement invoking a trigger (or function) that causes an update to an AUTO_INCREMENT column is not replicated correctly using statement-based replication. MySQL 8.0 marks such statements as unsafe. (Bug #45677)

A trigger can have triggers for different combinations of trigger event (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) and action time (BEFORE, AFTER), and multiple triggers are permitted.

For brevity, multiple triggers here is shorthand for multiple triggers that have the same trigger event and action time.

Upgrades. Multiple triggers are not supported in versions earlier than MySQL 5.7. If you upgrade servers in a replication topology that use a version earlier than MySQL 5.7, upgrade the replicas first and then upgrade the source. If an upgraded replication source server still has old replicas using MySQL versions that do not support multiple triggers, an error occurs on those replicas if a trigger is created on the source for a table that already has a trigger with the same trigger event and action time.

Downgrades. If you downgrade a server that supports multiple triggers to an older version that does not, the downgrade has these effects:

  • For each table that has triggers, all trigger definitions are in the .TRG file for the table. However, if there are multiple triggers with the same trigger event and action time, the server executes only one of them when the trigger event occurs. For information about .TRG files, see the Table Trigger Storage section of the MySQL Server Doxygen documentation, available at https://dev.mysql.com/doc/index-other.html.

  • If triggers for the table are added or dropped subsequent to the downgrade, the server rewrites the table's .TRG file. The rewritten file retains only one trigger per combination of trigger event and action time; the others are lost.

To avoid these problems, modify your triggers before downgrading. For each table that has multiple triggers per combination of trigger event and action time, convert each such set of triggers to a single trigger as follows:

  1. For each trigger, create a stored routine that contains all the code in the trigger. Values accessed using NEW and OLD can be passed to the routine using parameters. If the trigger needs a single result value from the code, you can put the code in a stored function and have the function return the value. If the trigger needs multiple result values from the code, you can put the code in a stored procedure and return the values using OUT parameters.

  2. Drop all triggers for the table.

  3. Create one new trigger for the table that invokes the stored routines just created. The effect for this trigger is thus the same as the multiple triggers it replaces.