Replication is based on the source server keeping track of all
changes to its databases (updates, deletes, and so on) in its binary
log. The binary log serves as a written record of all events that
modify database structure or content (data) from the moment the
server was started. Typically,
statements are not recorded because they modify neither database
structure nor content.
Each replica that connects to the source requests a copy of the binary log. That is, it pulls the data from the source, rather than the source pushing the data to the replica. The replica also executes the events from the binary log that it receives. This has the effect of repeating the original changes just as they were made on the source. Tables are created or their structure modified, and data is inserted, deleted, and updated according to the changes that were originally made on the source.
Because each replica is independent, the replaying of the changes from the source's binary log occurs independently on each replica that is connected to the source. In addition, because each replica receives a copy of the binary log only by requesting it from the source, the replica is able to read and update the copy of the database at its own pace and can start and stop the replication process at will without affecting the ability to update to the latest database status on either the source or replica side.
For more information on the specifics of the replication implementation, see Section 19.2.3, “Replication Threads”.
Source servers and replicas report their status in respect of the replication process regularly so that you can monitor them. See Section 10.14, “Examining Server Thread (Process) Information”, for descriptions of all replicated-related states.
The source's binary log is written to a local relay log on the replica before it is processed. The replica also records information about the current position with the source's binary log and the local relay log. See Section 19.2.4, “Relay Log and Replication Metadata Repositories”.
Database changes are filtered on the replica according to a set of rules that are applied according to the various configuration options and variables that control event evaluation. For details on how these rules are applied, see Section 19.2.5, “How Servers Evaluate Replication Filtering Rules”.