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Pre-General Availability Draft: 2017-11-16

8.12.5 Resource Groups

MySQL supports creation and management of resource groups, and permits assigning threads running within the server to particular groups so that threads execute according to the resources available to the group. Group attributes enable control over its resources, to enable or restrict resource consumption by threads in the group. DBAs can modify these attributes as appropriate for different workloads.

Currently, CPU time is a manageable resource, represented by the concept of virtual CPU as a term that includes CPU cores, hyperthreads, hardware threads, and so forth. The server determines at startup how many virtual CPUs are available, and database administrators with appropriate privileges can associate these CPUs with resource groups and assign threads to groups.

For example, to manage execution of batch jobs that need not execute with high priority, a DBA can create a Batch resource group, and adjust its priority up or down depending on how busy the server is. (Perhaps batch jobs assigned to the group should run at lower priority during the day and at higher priority during the night.) The DBA can also adjust the set of CPUs available to the group. Groups can be enabled or disabled to control whether threads are assignable to them.

The following sections describe aspects of resource group use in MySQL:

Important

On some platforms or MySQL server configurations, resource groups are unavailable or have limitations. In particular, Linux systems might require a manual step for some installation methods. For details, see Resource Group Restrictions.

Resource Group Components

These capabilities provide the SQL interface for resource group management in MySQL:

  • SQL statements enable creating, altering, and dropping resource groups, and enable assigning threads to resource groups. An optimizer hint enables assigning individual statements to resource groups.

  • Resource group privileges provide control over which users can perform resource group operations.

  • The INFORMATION_SCHEMA.RESOURCE_GROUPS table exposes information about resource group definitions and the Performance Schema threads table shows the resource group assignment for each thread.

  • Status variables provide execution counts for each management SQL statement.

Resource Group Attributes

Resource groups have attributes that define the group. All attributes can be set at group creation time. Some attributes are fixed at creation time; others can be modified any time thereafter.

These attributes are defined at resource group creation time and cannot be modified:

  • Each group has a name. Resource group names are identifiers like table and column names, and need not be quoted in SQL statements unless they contain special characters or are reserved words. Group names are not case sensitive and may be up to 64 characters long.

  • Each group has a type, which is either SYSTEM or USER. The resource group type affects the range of priority values assignable to the group, as described later. This attribute together with the differences in permitted priorities enables system threads to be identified so as to protect them from contention for CPU resources against user threads.

    System and user threads correspond to background and foreground threads as listed in the Performance Schema threads table.

These attributes are defined at resource group creation time and can be modified any time thereafter:

  • The CPU affinity is the set of virtual CPUs the resource group can use. An affinity can be any nonempty subset of the available CPUs. If a group has no affinity, it can use all available CPUs.

  • The thread priority is the execution priority for threads assigned to the resource group. Priority values range from -20 (highest priority) to 19 (lowest priority). The default priority is 0, for both system and user groups.

    System groups are permitted a higher priority than user groups, ensuring that user threads never have a higher priority than system threads:

    • For system resource groups, the permitted priority range is -20 to 0.

    • For user resource groups, the permitted priority range is 0 to 19.

  • Each group can be enabled or disabled, affording administrators control over thread assignment. Threads can be assigned only to enabled groups.

Resource Group Management

By default, there is one system group and one user group, named SYS_default and USR_default, respectively. These default groups cannot be dropped and their attributes cannot be modified. Each default group has no CPU affinity and priority 0.

Newly created system and user threads are assigned to the SYS_default and USR_default groups, respectively.

For user-defined resource groups, all attributes are assigned at group creation time. After a group has been created, its attributes can be modified, with the exception of the name and type attributes.

To create and manage user-defined resource groups, use these SQL statements:

Those statements require the RESOURCE_GROUP_ADMIN privilege.

To manage resource group assignments, use these capabilities:

Those operations require the RESOURCE_GROUP_ADMIN or RESOURCE_GROUP_USER privilege.

Resource group definitions are stored in the resource_groups data dictionary table so that groups persist across server restarts. Because resource_groups is part of the data dictionary, it is not directly accessible by users. Resource group information is available using INFORMATION_SCHEMA.RESOURCE_GROUPS, which is implemented as a view on the data dictionary table. See Section 25.18, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA RESOURCE_GROUPS Table”.

Initially, the RESOURCE_GROUPS table has these rows describing the default groups:

mysql> SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.RESOURCE_GROUPS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
   RESOURCE_GROUP_NAME: USR_default
   RESOURCE_GROUP_TYPE: USER
RESOURCE_GROUP_ENABLED: 1
              VCPU_IDS: 0-3
       THREAD_PRIORITY: 0
*************************** 2. row ***************************
   RESOURCE_GROUP_NAME: SYS_default
   RESOURCE_GROUP_TYPE: SYSTEM
RESOURCE_GROUP_ENABLED: 1
              VCPU_IDS: 0-3
       THREAD_PRIORITY: 0

The THREAD_PRIORITY values are 0, indicating the default priority. The VCPU_IDS values show a range comprising all available CPUs. For the default groups, the displayed value varies depending on the system on which the MySQL server runs.

Earlier discussion mentioned a scenario involving a resource group named Batch to manage execution of batch jobs that need not execute with high priority. To create such a group, use a statement similar to this:

CREATE RESOURCE GROUP Batch
  TYPE = USER
  VCPU = 2-3            -- assumes a system with at least 4 CPUs
  THREAD_PRIORITY = 10;

To verify whether the resource group was created as expected, check the RESOURCE_GROUPS table:

mysql> SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.RESOURCE_GROUPS
       WHERE RESOURCE_GROUP_NAME = 'Batch'\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
   RESOURCE_GROUP_NAME: Batch
   RESOURCE_GROUP_TYPE: USER
RESOURCE_GROUP_ENABLED: 1
              VCPU_IDS: 2-3
       THREAD_PRIORITY: 10

If the THREAD_PRIORITY value is 0 rather than 10, check Resource Group Restrictions, to see whether your platform or system configuration limits the resource group capability.

To assign a thread to the Batch group, do this:

SET RESOURCE GROUP Batch FOR thread_id;

Thereafter, statements in the named thread execute with Batch group resources.

If a session's own current thread should be in the Batch group, execute this statement within the session:

SET RESOURCE GROUP Batch;

Thereafter, statements in the session execute with Batch group resources.

To execute a single statement using the Batch group, use the RESOURCE_GROUP optimizer hint:

INSERT /*+ RESOURCE_GROUP(Batch) */ INTO t2 VALUES(2);

Threads assigned to the Batch group execute with its resources, which can be modified as desired:

  • For times when the system is highly loaded, decrease the number of CPUs assigned to the group, lower its priority, or (as shown) both:

    ALTER RESOURCE GROUP Batch
      VCPU = 3
      THREAD_PRIORITY = 19;
  • For times when the system is lightly loaded, increase the number of CPUs assigned to the group, raise its priority, or (as shown) both:

    ALTER RESOURCE GROUP Batch
      VCPU = 0-3
      THREAD_PRIORITY = 0;

Resource Group Replication

Resource group management is local to the server on which it occurs. Resource group SQL statements and modifications to the resource_groups data dictionary table are not written to the binary log and are not replicated.

Resource Group Restrictions

On some platforms or MySQL server configurations, resource groups are unavailable or have limitations:

  • Resource groups are unavailable if the thread pool plugin is installed.

  • Resource groups are unavailable on macOS, which provides no API for binding CPUs to a thread.

  • On FreeBSD and Solaris, resource group thread priorities are ignored. (Effectively, all threads run at priority 0.) Attempts to change priorities result in a warning:

    mysql> ALTER RESOURCE GROUP abc THREAD_PRIORITY = 10;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.18 sec)
    
    mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
    +---------+------+-------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Level   | Code | Message                                                     |
    +---------+------+-------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Warning | 4560 | Attribute thread_priority is ignored (using default value). |
    +---------+------+-------------------------------------------------------------+
  • On Linux, resource groups thread priorities are ignored unless the CAP_SYS_NICE capability is set. MySQL package installers for Linux systems should set this capability. For installation using a compressed tar file binary distribution or from source, the CAP_SYS_NICE capability can be set manually using the setcap command, specifying the path name to the mysqld executable (this requires sudo access). You can check the capabilities using getcap. For example:

    shell> sudo setcap cap_sys_nice+ep ./bin/mysqld
    shell> getcap ./bin/mysqld
    ./bin/mysqld = cap_sys_nice+ep
    Important

    If manual use of setcap is required, it must be performed after each reinstall.

  • On Windows, threads run at one of five thread priority levels. The resource group thread priority range of -20 to 19 maps onto those levels as indicated in the following table.

    Table 8.3 Resource Group Thread Priority on Windows

    Priority Range Windows Priority Level
    -20 to -10 THREAD_PRIORITY_HIGHEST
    -9 to -1 THREAD_PRIORITY_ABOVE_NORMAL
    0 THREAD_PRIORITY_NORMAL
    1 to 10 THREAD_PRIORITY_BELOW_NORMAL
    11 to 19 THREAD_PRIORITY_LOWEST


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