As described in Section 5.4, “MySQL Server Logs”, MySQL Server can create several different log files to help you see what activity is taking place. However, you must clean up these files regularly to ensure that the logs do not take up too much disk space.
When using MySQL with logging enabled, you may want to back up and remove old log files from time to time and tell MySQL to start logging to new files. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.
On a Linux (Red Hat) installation, you can use the
mysql-log-rotate script for this. If you
installed MySQL from an RPM distribution, this script should have
been installed automatically. Be careful with this script if you
are using the binary log for replication. You should not remove
binary logs until you are certain that their contents have been
processed by all slaves.
On other systems, you must install a short script yourself that you start from cron (or its equivalent) for handling log files.
Binary log files are automatically removed after the server's
binary log expiration period. Removal of the files can take place
at startup and when the binary log is flushed. The default binary
log expiration period is 30 days. You can specify an alternative
expiration period using the
variable. If you are using replication, you should specify an
expiration period that is no lower than the maximum amount of time
your slaves might lag behind the master. To remove binary logs on
demand, use the
PURGE BINARY LOGS
statement (see Section 188.8.131.52, “PURGE BINARY LOGS Syntax”).
You can force MySQL to start using new log files by flushing the
logs. Log flushing occurs when you issue a
FLUSH LOGS statement or execute a
mysqladmin flush-logs, mysqladmin
refresh, mysqldump --flush-logs, or
mysqldump --master-data command. See
Section 184.108.40.206, “FLUSH Syntax”, Section 4.5.2, “mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server”, and
Section 4.5.4, “mysqldump — A Database Backup Program”. In addition, the binary log is
flushed when its size reaches the value of the
max_binlog_size system variable.
A log-flushing operation does the following:
If general query logging or slow query logging to a log file is enabled, the server closes and reopens the general query log file or slow query log file.
If binary logging is enabled, the server closes the current binary log file and opens a new log file with the next sequence number.
If the server was started with the
--log-erroroption to cause the error log to be written to a file, the server closes and reopens the log file.
The server creates a new binary log file when you flush the logs.
However, it just closes and reopens the general and slow query log
files. To cause new files to be created on Unix, rename the
current log files before flushing them. At flush time, the server
opens new log files with the original names. For example, if the
general and slow query log files are named
mysql-slow.log, you can use a series of
commands like this:
shell> cd mysql-data-directory shell> mv mysql.log mysql.old shell> mv mysql-slow.log mysql-slow.old shell> mysqladmin flush-logs
On Windows, use rename rather than mv.
At this point, you can make a backup of
mysql-slow.old and then remove them from
A similar strategy can be used to back up the error log file, if there is one.
You can rename the general query log or slow query log at runtime by disabling the log:
SET GLOBAL general_log = 'OFF'; SET GLOBAL slow_query_log = 'OFF';
With the logs disabled, rename the log files externally (for example, from the command line). Then enable the logs again:
SET GLOBAL general_log = 'ON'; SET GLOBAL slow_query_log = 'ON';
This method works on any platform and does not require a server restart.
For the server to recreate a given log file after you have
renamed the file externally, the file location must be writable
by the server. This may not always be the case. For example, on
Linux, the server might write the error log as
/var/log is owned by
root and not writable by
mysqld. In this case, the log-flushing
operation will fail to create a new log file.
To handle this situation, you must manually create the new log
file with the proper ownershiop after renaming the original log
file. For example, execute these commands as
shell> mv /var/log/mysqld.log /var/log/mysqld.log.old shell> install -omysql -gmysql -m0644 /dev/null /var/log/mysqld.log