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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Using MySQL Enterprise Backup with Group Replication

18.4.6 Using MySQL Enterprise Backup with Group Replication

MySQL Enterprise Backup is a commercially-licensed backup utility for MySQL Server, available with MySQL Enterprise Edition. This section explains how to back up and subsequently restore a Group Replication member using MySQL Enterprise Backup. The same technique can be used to quickly add a new member to a group.

Backing up a Group Replication Member Using MySQL Enterprise Backup

Backing up a Group Replication member is similar to backing up a stand-alone MySQL instance. The following instructions assume that you are already familiar with how to use MySQL Enterprise Backup to perform a backup; if that is not the case, please review the MySQL Enterprise Backup 8.0 User's Guide, especially Backing Up a Database Server. Also note the requirements described in Grant MySQL Privileges to Backup Administrator and Using MySQL Enterprise Backup with Group Replication.

Consider the following group with three members, s1, s2, and s3, running on hosts with the same names:

mysql> SELECT member_host, member_port, member_state FROM performance_schema.replication_group_members;
+-------------+-------------+--------------+
| member_host | member_port | member_state |
+-------------+-------------+--------------+
| s1          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
| s2          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
| s3          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
+-------------+-------------+--------------+

Using MySQL Enterprise Backup, create a backup of s2 by issuing on its host, for example, the following command:

s2> mysqlbackup --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf --backup-image=/backups/my.mbi_`date +%d%m_%H%M` \ 
		      --backup-dir=/backups/backup_`date +%d%m_%H%M` --user=root -p \
--host=127.0.0.1 backup-to-image
Notes
  • If the system variable sql_require_primary_key is set to ON for the group, MySQL Enterprise Backup will not be able to log the backup progress on the servers. This is because the backup_progress table on the server is a CSV table, for which primary keys are not supported. In that case, mysqlbackup issues the following warnings during the backup operation:

    181011 11:17:06 MAIN WARNING: MySQL query 'CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS
    mysql.backup_progress( `backup_id` BIGINT NOT NULL, `tool_name` VARCHAR(4096)
    NOT NULL, `error_code` INT NOT NULL, `error_message` VARCHAR(4096) NOT NULL,
    `current_time` TIMESTAMP NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP               ON
    UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,`current_state` VARCHAR(200) NOT NULL ) ENGINE=CSV
    DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 COLLATE=utf8_bin': 3750, Unable to create a table
    without PK, when system variable 'sql_require_primary_key' is set. Add a PK
    to the table or unset this variable to avoid this message. Note that tables
    without PK can cause performance problems in row-based replication, so please
    consult your DBA before changing this setting.
    181011 11:17:06 MAIN WARNING: This backup operation's progress info cannot be
    logged.

    This does not prevent mysqlbackup from finishing the backup though.

  • For MySQL Enterprise Backup 8.0.11, when backing up a secondary member, as MySQL Enterprise Backup cannot write backup status and metadata to a read-only server instance, it issues the following warnings during the backup operation:

    181113 21:31:08 MAIN WARNING: This backup operation cannot write to backup
    progress. The MySQL server is running with the --super-read-only option.

    You can avoid the warning by using the --no-history-logging option with your backup command. This is not an issue for MySQL Enterprise Backup 8.0.12 and higher—see Using MySQL Enterprise Backup with Group Replication for details.

Restoring a Failed Member

Assume one of the members (s3 in the following example) is irreconcilably corrupted. The most recent backup of group member s2 can be used to restore s3. Here are the steps for performing the restore:

  1. Copy the backup of s2 onto the host for s3. The exact way to copy the backup depends on the operating system and tools available to you. In this example, we assume the hosts are both Linux servers and use SCP to copy the files between them:

    s2/backups> scp my.mbi_2206_1429 s3:/backups
  2. Restore the backup. Connect to the target host (the host for s3 in this case), and restore the backup using MySQL Enterprise Backup. Here are the steps:

    1. Stop the corrupted server, if it is still running. For example, on Linux distributions that use systemd:

      s3> systemctl stop mysqld
    2. Preserve the two configuration files in the corrupted server's data directory, auto.cnf and mysqld-auto.cnf (if it exists), by copying them to a safe location outside of the data directory. This is for preserving the server's UUID and Section 5.1.9.3, “Persisted System Variables” (if used), which are needed in the steps below.

    3. Delete all contents in the data directory of s3. For example:

      s3> rm -rf /var/lib/mysql/*

      If the system variables innodb_data_home_dir, innodb_log_group_home_dir, and innodb_undo_directory point to any directories other than the data directory, they should also be made empty; otherwise, the restore operation fails.

    4. Restore backup of s2 onto the host for s3:

      s3> mysqlbackup --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf \
        --datadir=/var/lib/mysql \
        --backup-image=/backups/my.mbi_2206_1429  \
      --backup-dir=/tmp/restore_`date +%d%m_%H%M` copy-back-and-apply-log
      Note

      The command above assumes that the binary logs and relay logs on s2 and s3 have the same base name and are at the same location on the two servers. If these conditions are not met, you should use the --log-bin and --relay-log options to restore the binary log and relay log to their original file paths on s3. For example, if you know that on s3 the binary log's base name is s3-bin and the relay-log's base name is s3-relay-bin, your restore command should look like:

      mysqlbackup --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf \
        --datadir=/var/lib/mysql \
        --backup-image=/backups/my.mbi_2206_1429  \
        --log-bin=s3-bin --relay-log=s3-relay-bin \
        --backup-dir=/tmp/restore_`date +%d%m_%H%M` copy-back-and-apply-log

      Being able to restore the binary log and relay log to the right file paths makes the restore process easier; if that is impossible for some reason, see Rebuild the Failed Member to Rejoin as a New Member.

  3. Restore the auto.cnf file for s3. To rejoin the replication group, the restored member must have the same server_uuid it used to join the group before. Supply the old server UUID by copying the auto.cnf file preserved in step 2 above into the data directory of the restored member.

    Note

    If you cannot supply the failed member's original server_uuid to the restored member by restoring its old auto.cnf file, you will have to let the restored member join the group as a new member; see instructions in Rebuild the Failed Member to Rejoin as a New Member below on how to do that.

  4. Restore the mysqld-auto.cnf file for s3 (only required if s3 used persistent system variables). The settings for the Section 5.1.9.3, “Persisted System Variables” that were used to configure the failed member must be provided to the restored member. These settings are to be found in the mysqld-auto.cnf file of the failed server, which you should have preserved in step 2 above. Restore the file to the data directory of the restored server. See Restoring Persisted System Variables on what to do if you do not have a copy of the file.

  5. Start the restored server. For example, on Linux distributions that use systemd:

    systemctl start mysqld
    Note

    If the server you are restoring is a primary member, perform the steps described in Restoring a Primary Member before starting the restored server.

  6. Restart Group Replication. Connect to the restarted s3 using, for example, a mysql client, and issue the following command:

    mysql> START GROUP_REPLICATION;

    Before the restored instance can become an online member of the group, it needs to apply any transactions that have happened to the group after the backup was taken; this is achieved using Group Replication's distributed recovery mechanism, and the process starts after the START GROUP_REPLICATION statement has been issued. To check the member status of the restored instance, issue:

    mysql> SELECT member_host, member_port, member_state FROM performance_schema.replication_group_members;
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    | member_host | member_port | member_state |
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    | s1          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    | s2          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    | s3          |        3306 | RECOVERING   |
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+

    This shows that s3 is applying transactions to catch up with the group. Once it has caught up with the rest of the group, its member_state changes to ONLINE:

    mysql> SELECT member_host, member_port, member_state FROM performance_schema.replication_group_members;
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    | member_host | member_port | member_state |
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    | s1          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    | s2          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    | s3          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    Note

    If the server you are restoring is a primary member, once it has gained synchrony with the group and become ONLINE, perform the steps described at the end of Restoring a Primary Member to revert the configuration changes you had made to the server before you started it.

The member has now been fully restored from the backup and functions as a regular member of the group.

Rebuild the Failed Member to Rejoin as a New Member

Sometimes, the steps outlined above in Restoring a Failed Member cannot be carried out because, for example, the binary log or relay log is corrupted, or it is just missing from the backup. In such a situation, use the backup to rebuild the member, and then add it to the group as a new member. In the steps below, we assume the rebuilt member will be named s3, like the failed member, and it will be run on the same host as s3 was:

  1. Copy the backup of s2 onto the host for s3 . The exact way to copy the backup depends on the operating system and tools available to you. In this example we assume the hosts are both Linux servers and use SCP to copy the files between them:

    s2/backups> scp my.mbi_2206_1429 s3:/backups
  2. Restore the backup. Connect to the target host (the host for s3 in this case), and restore the backup using MySQL Enterprise Backup. Here are the steps:

    1. Stop the corrupted server, if it is still running. For example, on Linux distributions that use systemd:

      s3> systemctl stop mysqld
    2. Preserve the configuration file mysqld-auto.cnf, if it is found in the corrupted server's data directory, by copying it to a safe location outside of the data directory. This is for preserving the server's Section 5.1.9.3, “Persisted System Variables”, which are needed later.

    3. Delete all contents in the data directory of s3. For example:

      s3> rm -rf /var/lib/mysql/*

      If the system variables innodb_data_home_dir, innodb_log_group_home_dir, and innodb_undo_directory point to any directories other than the data directory, they should also be made empty; otherwise, the restore operation will fail.

    4. Restore the backup of s2 onto the host of s3. With this approach, we are rebuilding s3 as a new member, for which we do not need or do not want to use the old binary and relay logs in the backup; therefore, if these logs have been included in your backup, exclude them using the --skip-binlog and --skip-relaylog options:

      s3> mysqlbackup --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf \
        --datadir=/var/lib/mysql \
        --backup-image=/backups/my.mbi_2206_1429  \
        --backup-dir=/tmp/restore_`date +%d%m_%H%M` \
        --skip-binlog --skip-relaylog \
      copy-back-and-apply-log
      Note

      If you have healthy binary log and relay logs in the backup that you can transfer onto the target host with no issues, you are recommended to follow the easier procedure as described in Restoring a Failed Member above.

  3. Restore the mysqld-auto.cnf file for s3 (only required if s3 used persistent system variables). The settings for the Section 5.1.9.3, “Persisted System Variables” that were used to configure the failed member must be provided to the restored server. These settings are to be found in the mysqld-auto.cnf file of the failed server, which you should have preserved in step 2 above. Restore the file to the data directory of the restored server. See Restoring Persisted System Variables on what to do if you do not have a copy of the file.

    Note

    Do NOT restore the corrupted server's auto.cnf file to the data directory of the new member—when the rebuilt s3 joins the group as a new member, it is going to be assigned a new server UUID.

  4. Start the restored server. For example, on Linux distributions that use systemd:

    systemctl start mysqld
    Note

    If the server you are restoring is a primary member, perform the steps described in Restoring a Primary Member before starting the restored server.

  5. Reconfigure the restored member to join Group Replication. Connect to the restored server with a mysql client and reset the master and slave information with the following commands:

    mysql> RESET MASTER;
    mysql> RESET SLAVE ALL;

    For the restored server to be able to recover automatically using Group Replication's built-in mechanism for distributed recovery, configure the server's gtid_executed variable. To do this, use the backup_gtid_executed.sql file included in the backup of s2, which is usually restored under the restored member's data directory. Disable binary logging, use the backup_gtid_executed.sql file to configure gtid_executed, and then re-enable binary logging by issuing the following statements with your mysql client:

    mysql> SET SQL_LOG_BIN=OFF;
    mysql> SOURCE datadir/backup_gtid_executed.sql
    mysql> SET SQL_LOG_BIN=ON;

    Then, configure the Group Replication user credentials on the member:

    mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_USER='rpl_user', MASTER_PASSWORD='password' / 
    		FOR CHANNEL 'group_replication_recovery';
  6. Restart Group Replication. Issue the following command to the restored server with your mysql client:

    mysql> START GROUP_REPLICATION;

    Before the restored instance can become an online member of the group, it needs to apply any transactions that have happened to the group after the backup was taken; this is achieved using Group Replication's distributed recovery mechanism, and the process starts after the START GROUP_REPLICATION statement has been issued. To check the member status of the restored instance, issue:

    mysql> SELECT member_host, member_port, member_state FROM performance_schema.replication_group_members;
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    | member_host | member_port | member_state |
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    | s3          |        3306 | RECOVERING   |
    | s2          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    | s1          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+

    This shows that s3 is applying transactions to catch up with the group. Once it has caught up with the rest of the group, its member_state changes to ONLINE:

    mysql> SELECT member_host, member_port, member_state FROM performance_schema.replication_group_members;
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    | member_host | member_port | member_state |
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    | s3          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    | s2          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    | s1          |        3306 | ONLINE       |
    +-------------+-------------+--------------+
    Note

    If the server you are restoring is a primary member, once it has gained synchrony with the group and become ONLINE, perform the steps described at the end of Restoring a Primary Member to revert the configuration changes you had made to the server before you started it.

The member has now been restored to the group as a new member.

Restoring Persisted System Variables.  mysqlbackup does not provide support for backing up or preserving Section 5.1.9.3, “Persisted System Variables”—the file mysqld-auto.cnf is not included in a backup. To start the restored member with its persisted variable settings, you need to do one of the following:

  • Preserve a copy of the mysqld-auto.cnf file from the corrupted server, and copy it to the restored server's data directory.

  • Copy the mysqld-auto.cnf file from another member of the group into the restored server's data directory, if that member has the same persisted system variable settings as the corrupted member.

  • After the restored server is started and before you restart Group Replication, set all the system variables manually to their persisted values through a mysql client.

Restoring a Primary Member.  If the restored member is a primary in the group, care must be taken to prevent writes to the restored database during the Group Replication distributed recovery process. Depending on how the group is accessed by clients, there is a possibility of DML statements being executed on the restored member once it becomes accessible on the network, prior to the member finishing its catch-up on the activities it has missed while off the group. To avoid this, before starting the restored server, configure the following system variables in the server option file:

group_replication_start_on_boot=OFF
super_read_only=ON
event_scheduler=OFF

These settings ensure that the member becomes read-only at startup and that the event scheduler is turned off while the member is catching up with the group during the distributed recovery process. Adequate error handling must also be configured on the clients, as they will be prevented temporarily from performing DML operations during this period on the restored member. Once the restore process is fully completed and the restored member is in-sync with the rest of the group, revert those changes; restart the event scheduler:

mysql> SET global event_scheduler=ON;

Edit the following system variables in the member's option file, so things are correctly configured for the next startup:

group_replication_start_on_boot=ON
super_read_only=OFF
event_scheduler=ON