This section provides answers to frequently asked questions.
A group can consist of maximum 9 servers. Attempting to add another server to a group with 9 members causes the request to join to be refused. This limit has been identified from testing and benchmarking as a safe boundary where the group performs reliably on a stable local area network.
Servers in a group connect to the other servers in the group by
opening a peer-to-peer TCP connection. These connections are only
used for internal communication and message passing between
servers in the group. This address is configured by the
The bootstrap flag instructs a member to create a group and act as the initial seed server. The second member joining the group needs to ask the member that bootstrapped the group to dynamically change the configuration in order for it to be added to the group.
A member needs to bootstrap the group in two scenarios. When the group is originally created, or when shutting down and restarting the entire group.
You can set the user credentials permanently as the credentials
CHANGE REPLICATION SOURCE
TO statement (from MySQL 8.0.23) or
CHANGE MASTER TO statement (before
MySQL 8.0.23). Alternatively, from MySQL 8.0.21, you can specify
them on the
statement each time Group Replication is started.
User credentials set using
SOURCE TO |
TO are stored in plain text in the replication metadata
repositories on the server, but user credentials specified on
START GROUP_REPLICATION are saved
in memory only, and are removed by a
GROUP_REPLICATION statement or server shutdown. Using
START GROUP_REPLICATION to
specify the user credentials therefore helps to secure the Group
Replication servers against unauthorized access. However, this
method is not compatible with starting Group Replication
automatically, as specified by the
system variable. For more information, see
Section 220.127.116.11, “Secure User Credentials for Distributed Recovery”.
Not directly, but MySQL Group replication is a shared nothing full replication solution, where all servers in the group replicate the same amount of data. Therefore if one member in the group writes N bytes to storage as the result of a transaction commit operation, then roughly N bytes are written to storage on other members as well, because the transaction is replicated everywhere.
However, given that other members do not have to do the same amount of processing that the original member had to do when it originally executed the transaction, they apply the changes faster. Transactions are replicated in a format that is used to apply row transformations only, without having to re-execute transactions again (row-based format).
Furthermore, given that changes are propagated and applied in row-based format, this means that they are received in an optimized and compact format, and likely reducing the number of IO operations required when compared to the originating member.
To summarize, you can scale-out processing, by spreading conflict free transactions throughout different members in the group. And you can likely scale-out a small fraction of your IO operations, since remote servers receive only the necessary changes to read-modify-write changes to stable storage.
Some additional load is expected because servers need to be constantly interacting with each other for synchronization purposes. It is difficult to quantify how much more data. It also depends on the size of the group (three servers puts less stress on the bandwidth requirements than nine servers in the group).
Also the memory and CPU footprint are larger, because more complex work is done for the server synchronization part and for the group messaging.
Yes, but the network connection between each member must be reliable and have suitable perfomance. Low latency, high bandwidth network connections are a requirement for optimal performance.
If network bandwidth alone is an issue, then Section 18.6.3, “Message Compression” can be used to lower the bandwidth required. However, if the network drops packets, leading to re-transmissions and higher end-to-end latency, throughput and latency are both negatively affected.
When the network round-trip time (RTT) between any group members is 5 seconds or more you could encounter problems as the built-in failure detection mechanism could be incorrectly triggered.
This depends on the reason for the connectivity problem. If the connectivity problem is transient and the reconnection is quick enough that the failure detector is not aware of it, then the server may not be removed from the group. If it is a "long" connectivity problem, then the failure detector eventually suspects a problem and the server is removed from the group.
From MySQL 8.0, two settings are available to increase the chances of a member remaining in or rejoining a group:
group_replication_member_expel_timeoutincreases the time between the creation of a suspicion (which happens after an initial 5-second detection period) and the expulsion of the member. You can set a waiting period of up to 1 hour. From MySQL 8.0.21, a waiting period of 5 seconds is set by default.
group_replication_autorejoin_triesmakes a member try to rejoin the group after an expulsion or unreachable majority timeout. The member makes the specified number of auto-rejoin attempts five minutes apart. From MySQL 8.0.21, this feature is activated by default and the member makes three auto-rejoin attempts.
If a server is expelled from the group and any auto-rejoin attempts do not succeed, you need to join it back again. In other words, after a server is removed explicitly from the group you need to rejoin it manually (or have a script doing it automatically).
If the member becomes silent, the other members remove it from the group configuration. In practice this may happen when the member has crashed or there is a network disconnection.
The failure is detected after a given timeout elapses for a given member and a new configuration without the silent member in it is created.
There is no method for defining policies for when to expel members automatically from the group. You need to find out why a member is lagging behind and fix that or remove the member from the group. Otherwise, if the server is so slow that it triggers the flow control, then the entire group slows down as well. The flow control can be configured according to the your needs.
No, there is no special member in the group in charge of triggering a reconfiguration.
Any member can suspect that there is a problem. All members need to (automatically) agree that a given member has failed. One member is in charge of expelling it from the group, by triggering a reconfiguration. Which member is responsible for expelling the member is not something you can control or set.
Group Replication is designed to provide highly available replica sets; data and writes are duplicated on each member in the group. For scaling beyond what a single system can provide, you need an orchestration and sharding framework built around a number of Group Replication sets, where each replica set maintains and manages a given shard or partition of your total dataset. This type of setup, often called a “sharded cluster”, allows you to scale reads and writes linearly and without limit.
If SELinux is enabled, which you can verify using sestatus -v, then you need to enable the use of the Group Replication communication port. See Setting the TCP Port Context for Group Replication.
If iptables is enabled, then you need to open up the Group Replication port for communication between the machines. To see the current rules in place on each machine, issue iptables -L. Assuming the port configured is 33061, enable communication over the necessary port by issuing iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 33061 -j ACCEPT.
The replication channels used by Group Replication behave in the
same way as replication channels used in asynchronous source to
replica replication, and as such rely on the relay log. In the
event of a change of the
relay_log variable, or when the
option is not set and the host name changes, there is a chance of
errors. See Section 18.104.22.168, “The Relay Log” for a recovery
procedure in this situation. Alternatively, another way of fixing
the issue specifically in Group Replication is to issue a
STOP GROUP_REPLICATION statement
and then a
statement to restart the instance. The Group Replication plugin
Group Replication uses two bind addresses in order to split
network traffic between the SQL address, used by clients to
communicate with the member, and the
used internally by the group members to communicate. For example,
assume a server with two network interfaces assigned to the
198.51.100.179. In such a situation you could
203.0.113.1:33061 for the internal group
network address by setting
Then you could use
3306 for the
port. Client SQL applications
would then connect to the member at
198.51.100.179:3306. This enables you to
configure different rules on the different networks. Similarly,
the internal group communication can be separated from the network
connection used for client applications, for increased security.
Group Replication uses network connections between members and
therefore its functionality is directly impacted by how you
configure hostnames and ports. For example, Group Replication's
distributed recovery process creates a connection to an existing
group member using the server's hostname and port. When a member
joins a group it receives the group membership information, using
the network address information that is listed at
One of the members listed in that table is selected as the donor
of the missing data from the group to the joining member.
This means that any value you configure using a hostname, such as
the SQL network address or the group seeds address, must be a
fully qualified name and resolvable by each member of the group.
You can ensure this for example through DNS, or correctly
/etc/hosts files, or other local
processes. If a you want to configure the
MEMBER_HOST value on a server, specify it using
--report-host option on the
server before joining it to the group.
The assigned value is used directly and is not affected by the
MEMBER_PORT on a server, specify
it using the
When Group Replication is started on a server, the value of
changed to the value of
which defaults to 7, and the value of
auto_increment_offset is changed
to the server ID. The changes are reverted when Group Replication
is stopped. These settings avoid the selection of duplicate
auto-increment values for writes on group members, which causes
rollback of transactions. The default auto increment value of 7
for Group Replication represents a balance between the number of
usable values and the permitted maximum size of a replication
group (9 members).
The changes are only made and reverted if
auto_increment_offset each have
their default value of 1. If their values have already been
modified from the default, Group Replication does not alter them.
From MySQL 8.0, the system variables are also not modified when
Group Replication is in single-primary mode, where only one server
If the group is operating in single-primary mode, it can be useful to find out which member is the primary. See Section 22.214.171.124.2, “Finding the Primary”