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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Group Replication IP Address Permissions

18.5.1 Group Replication IP Address Permissions

The Group Replication plugin lets you specify an allowlist of hosts from which an incoming Group Communication System connection can be accepted. From MySQL 8.0.22, the system variable group_replication_ip_allowlist is used to do this, and for releases before MySQL 8.0.22, the system variable group_replication_ip_whitelist is used. The new system variable works in the same way as the old system variable, only the terminology has changed. If you specify an allowlist on a server s1, then when server s2 is establishing a connection to s1 for the purpose of engaging group communication, s1 first checks the allowlist before accepting the connection from s2. If s2 is in the allowlist, then s1 accepts the connection, otherwise s1 rejects the connection attempt by s2.

If you do not specify an allowlist explicitly, the group communication engine (XCom) automatically scans active interfaces on the host, and identifies those with addresses on private subnetworks. These addresses and the localhost IP address for IPv4 and (from MySQL 8.0.14) IPv6 are used to create an automatic Group Replication allowlist. The automatic allowlist therefore includes any IP addresses found for the host in the following ranges:

IPv4 (as defined in RFC 1918)
10/8 prefix       (10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255) - Class A
172.16/12 prefix  (172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255) - Class B
192.168/16 prefix (192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255) - Class C

IPv6 (as defined in RFC 4193 and RFC 5156)
fc00:/7 prefix    - unique-local addresses
fe80::/10 prefix  - link-local unicast addresses

127.0.0.1 - localhost for IPv4
::1       - localhost for IPv6

An entry is added to the error log stating the addresses that have been allowed automatically for the host.

The automatic allowlist of private addresses cannot be used for connections from servers outside the private network, so a server, even if it has interfaces on public IPs, does not by default allow Group Replication connections from external hosts. For Group Replication connections between server instances that are on different machines, you must provide public IP addresses and specify these as an explicit allowlist. If you specify any entries for the allowlist, the private and localhost addresses are not added automatically, so if you use any of these, you must specify them explicitly.

To specify an allowlist manually, use the group_replication_ip_allowlist (from MySQL 8.0.22) or group_replication_ip_whitelist system variable. You cannot change the allowlist on a server while it is an active member of a replication group. If the member is active, you must execute STOP GROUP_REPLICATION before changing the allowlist, and START GROUP_REPLICATION afterwards.

The allowlist must contain the IP address or host name that is specified in each member's group_replication_local_address system variable. This address is not the same as the MySQL server SQL protocol host and port, and is not specified in the bind_address system variable for the server instance. If a host name used as the Group Replication local address for a server instance resolves to both an IPv4 and an IPv6 address, the IPv4 address is preferred for Group Replication connections.

IP addresses specified as distributed recovery endpoints, and the IP address for the member's standard SQL client connection if that is used for distributed recovery (which is the default), do not need to be added to the allowlist. The allowlist is only for the address specified by group_replication_local_address for each member. A joining member must have its initial connection to the group permitted by the allowlist in order to retrieve the address or addresses for distributed recovery.

In the allowlist, you can specify any combination of the following:

  • IPv4 addresses (for example, 198.51.100.44)

  • IPv4 addresses with CIDR notation (for example, 192.0.2.21/24)

  • IPv6 addresses, from MySQL 8.0.14 (for example, 2001:db8:85a3:8d3:1319:8a2e:370:7348)

  • IPv6 addresses with CIDR notation, from MySQL 8.0.14 (for example, 2001:db8:85a3:8d3::/64)

  • Host names (for example, example.org)

  • Host names with CIDR notation (for example, www.example.com/24)

Before MySQL 8.0.14, host names could only resolve to IPv4 addresses. From MySQL 8.0.14, host names can resolve to IPv4 addresses, IPv6 addresses, or both. If a host name resolves to both an IPv4 and an IPv6 address, the IPv4 address is always used for Group Replication connections. You can use CIDR notation in combination with host names or IP addresses to permit a block of IP addresses with a particular network prefix, but do ensure that all the IP addresses in the specified subnet are under your control.

You must stop and restart Group Replication on a member in order to change its allowlist. A comma must separate each entry in the allowlist. For example:

mysql> STOP GROUP_REPLICATION;
mysql> SET GLOBAL group_replication_ip_allowlist="192.0.2.21/24,198.51.100.44,203.0.113.0/24,2001:db8:85a3:8d3:1319:8a2e:370:7348,example.org,www.example.com/24";
mysql> START GROUP_REPLICATION;

To join a replication group, a server needs to be permitted on the seed member to which it makes the request to join the group. Typically, this would be the bootstrap member for the replication group, but it can be any of the servers listed by the group_replication_group_seeds option in the configuration for the server joining the group. If any of the seed members for the group are listed in the group_replication_group_seeds option with an IPv6 address when a joining member has an IPv4 group_replication_local_address, or the reverse, you must also set up and permit an alternative address for the joining member for the protocol offered by the seed member (or a host name that resolves to an address for that protocol). This is because when a server joins a replication group, it must make the initial contact with the seed member using the protocol that the seed member advertises in the group_replication_group_seeds option, whether that is IPv4 or IPv6. If a joining member does not have a permitted address for the appropriate protocol, its connection attempt is refused. For more information on managing mixed IPv4 and IPv6 replication groups, see Section 18.4.5, “Support For IPv6 And For Mixed IPv6 And IPv4 Groups”.

When a replication group is reconfigured (for example, when a new primary is elected or a member joins or leaves), the group members re-establish connections between themselves. If a group member is only permitted by servers that are no longer part of the replication group after the reconfiguration, it is unable to reconnect to the remaining servers in the replication group that do not permit it. To avoid this scenario entirely, specify the same allowlist for all servers that are members of the replication group.

Note

It is possible to configure different allowlists on different group members according to your security requirements, for example, in order to keep different subnets separate. If you need to configure different allowlists to meet your security requirements, ensure that there is sufficient overlap between the allowlists in the replication group to maximize the possibility of servers being able to reconnect in the absence of their original seed member.

For host names, name resolution takes place only when a connection request is made by another server. A host name that cannot be resolved is not considered for allowlist validation, and a warning message is written to the error log. Forward-confirmed reverse DNS (FCrDNS) verification is carried out for resolved host names.

Warning

Host names are inherently less secure than IP addresses in an allowlist. FCrDNS verification provides a good level of protection, but can be compromised by certain types of attack. Specify host names in your allowlist only when strictly necessary, and ensure that all components used for name resolution, such as DNS servers, are maintained under your control. You can also implement name resolution locally using the hosts file, to avoid the use of external components.