This section provides answers to frequently asked questions.
A group can consist of maximum 9 servers. Attempting to add another server to a group with 9 members causes the request to join to be refused.
Servers in a group connect to the other servers in the group by opening a peer-to-peer TCP connection. These connections are only used for internal communication and message passing between servers in the group.
The bootstrap flag instructs a member to create a group and act as the initial seed server. The second member joining the group needs to ask the member that bootstrapped the group to dynamically change the configuration in order for it to be added to the group.
A member needs to bootstrap the group in two scenarios. When the group is originally created, or when shutting down and restarting the entire group.
You pre-configure the Group Replication recovery channel
credentials using the
Not directly, but MySQL Group replication is a shared nothing full replication solution, where all servers in the group replicate the same amount of data. Therefore if one member in the group writes N bytes to storage as the result of a transaction commit operation, then roughly N bytes are written to storage on other members as well, because the transaction is replicated everywhere.
However, given that other members do not have to do the same amount of processing that the original member had to do when it originally executed the transaction, they apply the changes faster. Transactions are replicated in a format that is used to apply row transformations only, without having to re-execute transactions again (row-based format).
Furthermore, given that changes are propagated and applied in row-based format, this means that they are received in an optimized and compact format, and likely reducing the number of IO operations required when compared to the originating member.
To summarize, you can scale-out processing, by spreading conflict free transactions throughout different members in the group. And you can likely scale-out a small fraction of your IO operations, since remote servers receive only the necessary changes to read-modify-write changes to stable storage.
Some additional load is expected because servers need to be constantly interacting with each other for synchronization purposes. It is difficult to quantify how much more data. It also depends on the size of the group (three servers puts less stress on the bandwidth requirements than nine servers in the group).
Also the memory and CPU footprint are larger, because more complex work is done for the server synchronization part and for the group messaging.
Yes, but the network connection between each member must be reliable and have suitable perfomance. Low latency, high bandwidth network connections are a requirement for optimal performance.
If network bandwidth alone is an issue, then Section 188.8.131.52, “Message Compression” can be used to lower the bandwidth required. However, if the network drops packets, leading to re-transmissions and higher end-to-end latency, throughput and latency are both negatively affected.
When the network round-trip time (RTT) between any group members is 2 seconds or more you could encounter problems as the built-in failure detection mechanism could be incorrectly triggered.
This depends on the reason for the connectivity problem. If the connectivity problem is transient and the reconnection is quick enough that the failure detector is not aware of it, then the server may not be removed from the group. If it is a "long" connectivity problem, then the failure detector eventually suspects a problem and the server is removed from the group.
Once a server is removed from the group, you need to join it back again. In other words, after a server is removed explicitly from the group you need to rejoin it manually (or have a script doing it automatically).
If the member becomes silent, the other members remove it from the group configuration. In practice this may happen when the member has crashed or there is a network disconnection.
The failure is detected after a given timeout elapses for a given member and a new configuration without the silent member in it is created.
There is no method for defining policies for when to expel members automatically from the group. You need to find out why a member is lagging behind and fix that or remove the member from the group. Otherwise, if the server is so slow that it triggers the flow control, then the entire group slows down as well. The flow control can be configured according to the your needs.
No, there is no special member in the group in charge of triggering a reconfiguration.
Any member can suspect that there is a problem. All members need to (automatically) agree that a given member has failed. One member is in charge of expelling it from the group, by triggering a reconfiguration. Which member is responsible for expelling the member is not something you can control or set.
Group Replication is designed to provide highly available replica sets; data and writes are duplicated on each member in the group. For scaling beyond what a single system can provide, you need an orchestration and sharding framework built around a number of Group Replication sets, where each replica set maintains and manages a given shard or partition of your total dataset. This type of setup, often called a “sharded cluster”, allows you to scale reads and writes linearly and without limit.
If SELinux is enabled, which you can verify using
sestatus -v, then you need to enable the use of
the Group Replication communication port, configured by
for mysqld so that it can bind to it and listen
there. To see which ports MySQL is currently allowed to use, issue
semanage port -l | grep mysqld. Assuming the
port configured is 6606, add the necessary port to those permitted
by SELinux by issuing semanage port -a -t mysqld_port_t
-p tcp 6606.
If iptables is enabled, then you need to open up the Group Replication port for communication between the machines. To see the current rules in place on each machine, issue iptables -L. Assuming the port configured is 6606, enable communication over the necessary port by issuing iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 6606 -j ACCEPT.
The replication channels used by Group Replication behave in the
same way as replication channels used in master to slave
replication, and as such rely on the relay log. In the event of a
change of the
or when the option is not set and the host name changes, there is
a chance of errors. See Section 184.108.40.206, “The Slave Relay Log” for
a recovery procedure in this situation. Alternatively, another way
of fixing the issue specifically in Group Replication is to issue
STOP GROUP_REPLICATION statement
and then a
statement to restart the instance. The Group Replication plugin