The following sections describe how to set up replicas. Before you proceed, ensure that you have:
Configured the source with the necessary configuration properties. See Section 22.214.171.124, “Setting the Replication Source Configuration”.
Obtained the source's status information, or a copy of the source's binary log index file made during a shutdown for the data snapshot. See Section 126.96.36.199, “Obtaining the Replication Source's Binary Log Coordinates”.
On the source, released the read lock:
mysql> UNLOCK TABLES;
Each replica must have a unique server ID, as specified by the
server_id system variable. If
you are setting up multiple replicas, each one must have a
server_id value that
differs from that of the source and from any of the other
replicas. If the replica's server ID is not already set, or
the current value conflicts with the value that you have
chosen for the source server or another replica, you must
change it. With the default
server_id value of 0, a
replica refuses to connect to a source.
You can change the
value dynamically by issuing a statement like this:
SET GLOBAL server_id = 21;
If the default
value of 0 was set previously, you must restart the server to
initialize the replica with your new nonzero server ID.
Otherwise, a server restart is not needed when you change the
server ID, unless you make other configuration changes that
require it. For example, if binary logging was disabled on the
server and you want it enabled for your replica, a server
restart is required to enable this.
If you are shutting down the replica server, you can edit the
[mysqld] section of the configuration file
to specify a unique server ID. For example:
A replica is not required to have binary logging enabled for
replication to take place. However, binary logging on a
replica means that the replica's binary log can be used for
data backups and crash recovery. Replicas that have binary
logging enabled can also be used as part of a more complex
replication topology. If you want to enable binary logging on
a replica, use the
log-bin option in the
[mysqld] section of the configuration file.
A server restart is required to start binary logging on a
server that did not previously use it.
To set up the replica to communicate with the source for replication, configure the replica with the necessary connection information. To do this, execute the following statement on the replica, replacing the option values with the actual values relevant to your system:
mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO -> MASTER_HOST='source_host_name', -> MASTER_USER='replication_user_name', -> MASTER_PASSWORD='replication_password', -> MASTER_LOG_FILE='recorded_log_file_name', -> MASTER_LOG_POS=recorded_log_position;
Replication cannot use Unix socket files. You must be able to connect to the source MySQL server using TCP/IP.
CHANGE MASTER TO statement
has other options as well. For example, it is possible to set
up secure replication using SSL. For a full list of options,
and information about the maximum permissible length for the
string-valued options, see Section 188.8.131.52, “CHANGE MASTER TO Statement”.
The next steps depend on whether you have existing data to import to the replica or not. See Section 184.108.40.206, “Choosing a Method for Data Snapshots” for more information. Choose one of the following:
If you do not have a snapshot of a database to import, see Section 220.127.116.11.3, “Setting Up Replication between a New Source and Replicas”.
If you have a snapshot of a database to import, see Section 18.104.22.168.4, “Setting Up Replication with Existing Data”.
When there is no snapshot of a previous database to import, configure the replica to start replication from the new source.
To set up replication between a source and a new replica:
Start up the replica and connect to it.
CHANGE MASTER TOstatement to set the source configuration. See Section 22.214.171.124.2, “Setting the Source Configuration on the Replica”.
Perform these setup steps on each replica.
This method can also be used if you are setting up new servers but have an existing dump of the databases from a different server that you want to load into your replication configuration. By loading the data into a new source, the data is automatically replicated to the replicas.
If you are setting up a new replication environment using the data from a different existing database server to create a new source, run the dump file generated from that server on the new source. The database updates are automatically propagated to the replicas:
$> mysql -h master < fulldb.dump
When setting up replication with existing data, transfer the snapshot from the source to the replica before starting replication. The process for importing data to the replica depends on how you created the snapshot of data on the source.
Follow this procedure to set up replication with existing data:
Import the data to the replica using one of the following methods:
$> mysql < fulldb.dump
If you created a snapshot using the raw data files, extract the data files into your replica's data directory. For example:
$> tar xvf dbdump.tar
You may need to set permissions and ownership on the files so that the replica server can access and modify them. Then start the replica server, ensuring that replication does not start by using the
Configure the replica with the replication coordinates from the source. This tells the replica the binary log file and position within the file where replication needs to start. Also, configure the replica with the login credentials and host name of the source. For more information on the
CHANGE MASTER TOstatement required, see Section 126.96.36.199.2, “Setting the Source Configuration on the Replica”.
Start the replication threads:
mysql> START SLAVE;
After you have performed this procedure, the replica connects to the source and replicates any updates that have occurred on the source since the snapshot was taken.
variable for the source is not correctly set, replicas cannot
connect to it. Similarly, if you have not set
server_id correctly for the
replica, you get the following error in the replica's error
Warning: You should set server-id to a non-0 value if master_host is set; we will force server id to 2, but this MySQL server will not act as a slave.
You also find error messages in the replica's error log if it is not able to replicate for any other reason.
The replica stores information about the source you have
configured in its connection metadata repository. The
connection metadata repository can be in the form of files or
a table, as determined by the value set for the
variable. When a replica runs with
two files are stored in the data directory, named
instead, this information is saved in the
master_slave_info table in the
mysql database. In either case, do
not remove or edit the files or table.
Always use the
CHANGE MASTER TO
statement to change replication parameters. The replica can
use the values specified in the statement to update the status
files automatically. See Section 16.2.4, “Relay Log and Replication Metadata Repositories”, for
The contents of the connection metadata repository override
some of the server options specified on the command line or
Section 16.1.6, “Replication and Binary Logging Options and Variables”, for more details.
A single snapshot of the source suffices for multiple replicas. To set up additional replicas, use the same source snapshot and follow the replica portion of the procedure just described.