Documentation Home
MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual
Related Documentation Download this Manual
PDF (US Ltr) - 37.4Mb
PDF (A4) - 37.4Mb
PDF (RPM) - 36.8Mb
HTML Download (TGZ) - 10.2Mb
HTML Download (Zip) - 10.2Mb
HTML Download (RPM) - 8.9Mb
Man Pages (TGZ) - 210.3Kb
Man Pages (Zip) - 318.3Kb
Info (Gzip) - 3.4Mb
Info (Zip) - 3.4Mb
Excerpts from this Manual GTID Concepts

A global transaction identifier (GTID) is a unique identifier created and associated with each transaction committed on the server of origin (master). This identifier is unique not only to the server on which it originated, but is unique across all servers in a given replication setup. There is a 1-to-1 mapping between all transactions and all GTIDs.

The following paragraphs provide a basic description of GTIDs. More advanced concepts are covered later in the following sections:

A GTID is represented as a pair of coordinates, separated by a colon character (:), as shown here:

GTID = source_id:transaction_id

The source_id identifies the originating server. Normally, the server's server_uuid is used for this purpose. The transaction_id is a sequence number determined by the order in which the transaction was committed on this server; for example, the first transaction to be committed has 1 as its transaction_id, and the tenth transaction to be committed on the same originating server is assigned a transaction_id of 10. It is not possible for a transaction to have 0 as a sequence number in a GTID. For example, the twenty-third transaction to be committed originally on the server with the UUID 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 has this GTID:


This format is used to represent GTIDs in the output of statements such as SHOW SLAVE STATUS as well as in the binary log. They can also be seen when viewing the log file with mysqlbinlog --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS or in the output from SHOW BINLOG EVENTS.

As written in the output of statements such as SHOW MASTER STATUS or SHOW SLAVE STATUS, a sequence of GTIDs originating from the same server may be collapsed into a single expression, as shown here.


The example just shown represents the first through fifth transactions originating on the MySQL Server whose server_uuid is 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562.

This format is also used to supply the argument required by the START SLAVE options SQL_BEFORE_GTIDS and SQL_AFTER_GTIDS.


A GTID set is a set of global transaction identifiers which is represented as shown here:

    uuid_set [, uuid_set] ...
    | ''





    (n >= 1)

GTID sets are used in the MySQL Server in several ways. For example, the values stored by the gtid_executed and gtid_purged system variables are represented as GTID sets. In addition, the functions GTID_SUBSET() and GTID_SUBTRACT() require GTID sets as input. When GTID sets are returned from server variables, UUIDs are in alphabetical order and numeric intervals are merged and in ascending order.

GTIDs are always preserved between master and slave. This means that you can always determine the source for any transaction applied on any slave by examining its binary log. In addition, once a transaction with a given GTID is committed on a given server, any subsequent transaction having the same GTID is ignored by that server. Thus, a transaction committed on the master can be applied no more than once on the slave, which helps to guarantee consistency.

When GTIDs are in use, the slave has no need for any nonlocal data, such as the name of a file on the master and a position within that file. All necessary information for synchronizing with the master is obtained directly from the replication data stream. GTIDs replace the file-offset pairs previously required to determine points for starting, stopping, or resuming the flow of data between master and slave. therefore, do not include MASTER_LOG_FILE or MASTER_LOG_POS options in the CHANGE MASTER TO statement used to direct a slave to replicate from a given master; instead it is necessary only to enable the MASTER_AUTO_POSITION option. For the exact steps needed to configure and start masters and slaves using GTID-based replication, see Section, “Setting Up Replication Using GTIDs”.

The generation and life cycle of a GTID consist of the following steps:

  1. A transaction is executed and committed on the master.

    This transaction is assigned a GTID using the master's UUID and the smallest nonzero transaction sequence number not yet used on this server; the GTID is written to the master's binary log (immediately preceding the transaction itself in the log).

  2. After the binary log data is transmitted to the slave and stored in the slave's relay log (using established mechanisms for this process—see Section 17.2, “Replication Implementation”, for details), the slave reads the GTID and sets the value of its gtid_next system variable as this GTID. This tells the slave that the next transaction must be logged using this GTID.

    It is important to note that the slave sets gtid_next in a session context.

  3. The slave verifies that this GTID has not already been used to log a transaction in its own binary log. If this GTID has not been used, the slave then writes the GTID, applies the transaction, and writes the transaction to its binary log. By reading and checking the transaction's GTID first, before processing the transaction itself, the slave guarantees not only that no previous transaction having this GTID has been applied on the slave, but also that no other session has already read this GTID but has not yet committed the associated transaction. In other words, multiple clients are not permitted to apply the same transaction concurrently.

  4. Because gtid_next is not empty, the slave does not attempt to generate a GTID for this transaction but instead writes the GTID stored in this variable—that is, the GTID obtained from the master—immediately preceding the transaction in its binary log.

mysql.gtid_executed Table

Beginning with MySQL 5.7.5, GTIDs are stored in a table named gtid_executed, in the mysql database. A row in this table contains, for each GTID or set of GTIDs that it represents, the UUID of the originating server, and the starting and ending transaction IDs of the set; for a row referencing only a single GTID, these last two values are the same.

The mysql.gtid_executed table is created (if it does not already exist) when the MySQL Server is installed or upgraded, using a CREATE TABLE statement similar to that shown here:

CREATE TABLE gtid_executed (
    source_uuid CHAR(36) NOT NULL,
    interval_start BIGINT(20) NOT NULL,
    interval_end BIGINT(20) NOT NULL,                                                                                                                                                                                  
    PRIMARY KEY (source_uuid, interval_start)

As with other MySQL system tables, do not attempt to create or modify this table yourself.

GTIDs are stored in the mysql.gtid_executed table only when gtid_mode is ON or ON_PERMISSIVE. GTIDs are stored in this table without regard to whether binary logging is enabled. However, the manner in which they are stored differs depending on whether log_bin is ON or OFF:

  • If binary logging is disabled (log_bin is OFF), the server stores the GTID belonging to each transaction together with the transaction in the table.

    In addition, when binary logging is disabled, this table is compressed periodically at a user-configurable rate; see mysql.gtid_executed Table Compression, for more information.

  • If binary logging is enabled (log_bin is ON), then in addition to storing the GTIDs in mysql.gtid_executed, whenever the binary log is rotated or the server is shut down, the server writes GTIDs for all transactions that were written into the previous binary log into the new binary log.

    In the event of the server stopping unexpectedly, the set of GTIDs from the previous binary log is not saved in the mysql.gtid_executed table. In this case, these GTIDs are added to the table and to the set of GTIDs in the gtid_executed system variable during recovery.

The mysql.gtid_executed table is reset by RESET MASTER.

mysql.gtid_executed Table Compression

Over the course of time, the mysql.gtid_executed table can become filled with many rows referring to individual GTIDs that originate on the same server, and whose transaction IDs make up a sequence, similar to what is shown here:

mysql> SELECT * FROM mysql.gtid_executed;
| source_uuid                          | interval_start | interval_end |
| 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 | 37             | 37           |
| 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 | 38             | 38           |
| 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 | 39             | 39           |
| 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 | 40             | 40           |
| 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 | 41             | 41           |
| 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 | 42             | 42           |
| 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 | 43             | 43           |

Considerable space can be saved if this table is compressed periodically by replacing each such set of rows with a single row that spans the entire interval of transaction identifiers, like this:

| source_uuid                          | interval_start | interval_end |
| 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 | 37             | 43           |

When GTIDs are enabled, the server performs this type of compression on the mysql.gtid_executed table periodically. You can control the number of transactions that are allowed to elapse before the table is compressed, and thus the compression rate, by setting the executed_gtids_compression_period system variable. This variable's default value is 1000; this means that, by default, compression of the table is performed after each 1000 transactions. Setting executed_gtid_compression_period to 0 prevents the compression from being performed at all; however, you should be prepared for a potentially large increase in the amount of disk space that may be required by the gtid_executed table if you do this.


When binary logging is enabled, the value of executed_gtids_compression_period is not used and the mysql.gtid_executed table is compressed on each binary log rotation.

Compression of the mysql.gtid_executed table is performed by a dedicated foreground thread that is created whenever GTIDs are enabled on the server. This thread is not listed in the output of SHOW PROCESSLIST, but it can be viewed as a row in the threads table, as shown here:

*************************** 1. row ***************************
          THREAD_ID: 21
               NAME: thread/sql/compress_gtid_table
               TYPE: FOREGROUND
     PROCESSLIST_ID: 139635685943104
               ROLE: NULL

This thread has the name thread/sql/compress_gtid_table, and normally sleeps until executed_gtids_compression_period transactions have been executed, then wakes up to perform compression of the mysql.gtid_executed table as described previously. It then sleeps until another executed_gtids_compression_period transactions have taken place, then wakes up to perform the compression again, repeating this loop indefinitely. Setting this value to 0 when binary logging is disabled means that the thread always sleeps and never wakes up.

User Comments
Sign Up Login You must be logged in to post a comment.