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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual  /  MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6

Chapter 21 MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6

Table of Contents

21.1 NDB Cluster Overview
21.1.1 NDB Cluster Core Concepts
21.1.2 NDB Cluster Nodes, Node Groups, Replicas, and Partitions
21.1.3 NDB Cluster Hardware, Software, and Networking Requirements
21.1.4 What is New in NDB Cluster
21.1.5 NDB: Added, Deprecated, and Removed Options, Variables, and Parameters
21.1.6 MySQL Server Using InnoDB Compared with NDB Cluster
21.1.7 Known Limitations of NDB Cluster
21.2 NDB Cluster Installation
21.2.1 The NDB Cluster Auto-Installer (NDB 7.5)
21.2.2 The NDB Cluster Auto-Installer (NDB 7.6)
21.2.3 Installation of NDB Cluster on Linux
21.2.4 Installing NDB Cluster on Windows
21.2.5 Initial Configuration of NDB Cluster
21.2.6 Initial Startup of NDB Cluster
21.2.7 NDB Cluster Example with Tables and Data
21.2.8 Safe Shutdown and Restart of NDB Cluster
21.2.9 Upgrading and Downgrading NDB Cluster
21.3 Configuration of NDB Cluster
21.3.1 Quick Test Setup of NDB Cluster
21.3.2 Overview of NDB Cluster Configuration Parameters, Options, and Variables
21.3.3 NDB Cluster Configuration Files
21.3.4 Using High-Speed Interconnects with NDB Cluster
21.4 NDB Cluster Programs
21.4.1 ndbd — The NDB Cluster Data Node Daemon
21.4.2 ndbinfo_select_all — Select From ndbinfo Tables
21.4.3 ndbmtd — The NDB Cluster Data Node Daemon (Multi-Threaded)
21.4.4 ndb_mgmd — The NDB Cluster Management Server Daemon
21.4.5 ndb_mgm — The NDB Cluster Management Client
21.4.6 ndb_blob_tool — Check and Repair BLOB and TEXT columns of NDB Cluster Tables
21.4.7 ndb_config — Extract NDB Cluster Configuration Information
21.4.8 ndb_cpcd — Automate Testing for NDB Development
21.4.9 ndb_delete_all — Delete All Rows from an NDB Table
21.4.10 ndb_desc — Describe NDB Tables
21.4.11 ndb_drop_index — Drop Index from an NDB Table
21.4.12 ndb_drop_table — Drop an NDB Table
21.4.13 ndb_error_reporter — NDB Error-Reporting Utility
21.4.14 ndb_import — Import CSV Data Into NDB
21.4.15 ndb_index_stat — NDB Index Statistics Utility
21.4.16 ndb_move_data — NDB Data Copy Utility
21.4.17 ndb_perror — Obtain NDB Error Message Information
21.4.18 ndb_print_backup_file — Print NDB Backup File Contents
21.4.19 ndb_print_file — Print NDB Disk Data File Contents
21.4.20 ndb_print_frag_file — Print NDB Fragment List File Contents
21.4.21 ndb_print_schema_file — Print NDB Schema File Contents
21.4.22 ndb_print_sys_file — Print NDB System File Contents
21.4.23 ndb_redo_log_reader — Check and Print Content of Cluster Redo Log
21.4.24 ndb_restore — Restore an NDB Cluster Backup
21.4.25 ndb_select_all — Print Rows from an NDB Table
21.4.26 ndb_select_count — Print Row Counts for NDB Tables
21.4.27 ndb_setup.py — Start browser-based Auto-Installer for NDB Cluster
21.4.28 ndb_show_tables — Display List of NDB Tables
21.4.29 ndb_size.pl — NDBCLUSTER Size Requirement Estimator
21.4.30 ndb_top — View CPU usage information for NDB threads
21.4.31 ndb_waiter — Wait for NDB Cluster to Reach a Given Status
21.4.32 Options Common to NDB Cluster Programs — Options Common to NDB Cluster Programs
21.5 Management of NDB Cluster
21.5.1 Commands in the NDB Cluster Management Client
21.5.2 NDB Cluster Log Messages
21.5.3 Event Reports Generated in NDB Cluster
21.5.4 Summary of NDB Cluster Start Phases
21.5.5 Performing a Rolling Restart of an NDB Cluster
21.5.6 NDB Cluster Single User Mode
21.5.7 Adding NDB Cluster Data Nodes Online
21.5.8 Online Backup of NDB Cluster
21.5.9 MySQL Server Usage for NDB Cluster
21.5.10 NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables
21.5.11 Online Operations with ALTER TABLE in NDB Cluster
21.5.12 Distributed Privileges Using Shared Grant Tables
21.5.13 NDB API Statistics Counters and Variables
21.5.14 ndbinfo: The NDB Cluster Information Database
21.5.15 INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables for NDB Cluster
21.5.16 Quick Reference: NDB Cluster SQL Statements
21.5.17 NDB Cluster Security Issues
21.6 NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.1 NDB Cluster Replication: Abbreviations and Symbols
21.6.2 General Requirements for NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.3 Known Issues in NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.4 NDB Cluster Replication Schema and Tables
21.6.5 Preparing the NDB Cluster for Replication
21.6.6 Starting NDB Cluster Replication (Single Replication Channel)
21.6.7 Using Two Replication Channels for NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.8 Implementing Failover with NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.9 NDB Cluster Backups With NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.10 NDB Cluster Replication: Bidrectional and Circular Replication
21.6.11 NDB Cluster Replication Conflict Resolution
21.7 NDB Cluster Release Notes

MySQL NDB Cluster is a high-availability, high-redundancy version of MySQL adapted for the distributed computing environment. The most recent NDB Cluster release series uses version 8 of the NDB storage engine (also known as NDBCLUSTER) to enable running several computers with MySQL servers and other software in a cluster. NDB Cluster 8.0, now available as a General Availability (GA) release beginning with version 8.0.19, incorporates version 8.0 of the NDB storage engine. NDB Cluster 7.6 and NDB Cluster 7.5, still available as GA releases, use versions 7.6 and 7.5 of NDB, respectively. Previous GA releases still available for use in production, NDB Cluster 7.4 and NDB Cluster 7.3, incorporate NDB versions 7.4 and 7.3, respectively. NDB 7.2 and older release series are no longer supported or maintained.

Support for the NDB storage engine is not included in standard MySQL Server 5.7 binaries built by Oracle. Instead, users of NDB Cluster binaries from Oracle should upgrade to the most recent binary release of NDB Cluster for supported platforms—these include RPMs that should work with most Linux distributions. NDB Cluster users who build from source should use the sources provided for NDB Cluster. (Locations where the sources can be obtained are listed later in this section.)

Important

MySQL NDB Cluster does not support InnoDB Cluster, which must be deployed using MySQL Server 5.7 with the InnoDB storage engine as well as additional applications that are not included in the NDB Cluster distribution. MySQL Server 5.7 binaries cannot be used with MySQL NDB Cluster. For more information about deploying and using InnoDB Cluster, see Chapter 20, InnoDB Cluster. Section 21.1.6, “MySQL Server Using InnoDB Compared with NDB Cluster”, discusses differences between the NDB and InnoDB storage engines.

This chapter contains information about NDB Cluster 7.5 releases through 5.7.31-ndb-7.5.20 and NDB Cluster 7.6 releases through 5.7.31-ndb-7.6.16, both of which are General Availability (GA) releases supported in production. The latest available rleases of these are 5.7.31-ndb-7.5.19 and 5.7.31-ndb-7.6.15, respectively. NDB Cluster 8.0 is the current GA release and recommended for new deployments; for information about NDB Cluster 8.0, see What is New in NDB Cluster. For similar information about NDB Cluster 7.5 and 7.6, see Section 21.1.4, “What is New in NDB Cluster”. NDB Cluster 7.4 and 7.3 are previous GA releases still supported in production; see MySQL NDB Cluster 7.3 and NDB Cluster 7.4.

Supported Platforms.  NDB Cluster is currently available and supported on a number of platforms. For exact levels of support available for on specific combinations of operating system versions, operating system distributions, and hardware platforms, please refer to https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/cluster.html.

Availability.  NDB Cluster binary and source packages are available for supported platforms from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/cluster/.

NDB Cluster release numbers.  NDB Cluster follows a somewhat different release pattern from the mainline MySQL Server 5.7 series of releases. In this Manual and other MySQL documentation, we identify these and later NDB Cluster releases employing a version number that begins with NDB. This version number is that of the NDBCLUSTER storage engine used in the release, and not of the MySQL server version on which the NDB Cluster release is based.

Version strings used in NDB Cluster software.  The version string displayed by NDB Cluster programs uses this format:

mysql-mysql_server_version-ndb-ndb_engine_version

mysql_server_version represents the version of the MySQL Server on which the NDB Cluster release is based. For all NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6 releases, this is 5.7. ndb_engine_version is the version of the NDB storage engine used by this release of the NDB Cluster software. You can see this format used in the mysql client, as shown here:

shell> mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.7.31-ndb-7.5.20 Source distribution

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql> SELECT VERSION()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
VERSION(): 5.7.31-ndb-7.5.20
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

This version string is also displayed in the output of the SHOW command in the ndb_mgm client:

ndb_mgm> SHOW
Connected to Management Server at: localhost:1186
Cluster Configuration
---------------------
[ndbd(NDB)]     2 node(s)
id=1    @10.0.10.6  (5.7.31-ndb-7.5.20, Nodegroup: 0, *)
id=2    @10.0.10.8  (5.7.31-ndb-7.5.20, Nodegroup: 0)

[ndb_mgmd(MGM)] 1 node(s)
id=3    @10.0.10.2  (5.7.31-ndb-7.5.20)

[mysqld(API)]   2 node(s)
id=4    @10.0.10.10  (5.7.31-ndb-7.5.20)
id=5 (not connected, accepting connect from any host)

The version string identifies the mainline MySQL version from which the NDB Cluster release was branched and the version of the NDB storage engine used. For example, the full version string for NDB 7.5.4 (the first NDB 7.5 GA release) was mysql-5.7.16-ndb-7.5.4. From this we can determine the following:

  • Since the portion of the version string preceding -ndb- is the base MySQL Server version, this means that NDB 7.5.4 derived from MySQL 5.7.16, and contained all feature enhancements and bug fixes from MySQL 5.7 up to and including MySQL 5.7.16.

  • Since the portion of the version string following -ndb- represents the version number of the NDB (or NDBCLUSTER) storage engine, NDB 7.5.4 used version 7.5.4 of the NDBCLUSTER storage engine.

New NDB Cluster releases are numbered according to updates in the NDB storage engine, and do not necessarily correspond in a one-to-one fashion with mainline MySQL Server releases. For example, NDB 7.5.4 (as previously noted) was based on MySQL 5.7.16, while NDB 7.5.3 was based on MySQL 5.7.13 (version string: mysql-5.7.13-ndb-7.5.3).

Compatibility with standard MySQL 5.7 releases.  While many standard MySQL schemas and applications can work using NDB Cluster, it is also true that unmodified applications and database schemas may be slightly incompatible or have suboptimal performance when run using NDB Cluster (see Section 21.1.7, “Known Limitations of NDB Cluster”). Most of these issues can be overcome, but this also means that you are very unlikely to be able to switch an existing application datastore—that currently uses, for example, MyISAM or InnoDB—to use the NDB storage engine without allowing for the possibility of changes in schemas, queries, and applications. In addition, the MySQL Server and NDB Cluster codebases diverge considerably, so that the standard mysqld cannot function as a drop-in replacement for the version of mysqld supplied with NDB Cluster.

NDB Cluster development source trees.  NDB Cluster development trees can also be accessed from https://github.com/mysql/mysql-server.

The NDB Cluster development sources maintained at https://github.com/mysql/mysql-server are licensed under the GPL. For information about obtaining MySQL sources using Git and building them yourself, see Section 2.9.5, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

Note

As with MySQL Server 5.7, NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6 releases are built using CMake.

NDB Cluster 8.0 is available beginning with NDB 8.0.19 as a General Availability release, and is recommended for new deployments; see What is New in NDB Cluster, for more information. NDB Cluster 7.6 and 7.5 are previous GA releases still supported in production. NDB Cluster 7.4 and 7.3 are previous GA releases still supported in production, although we recommend that new deployments for production use NDB Cluster 8.0; see MySQL NDB Cluster 7.3 and NDB Cluster 7.4.

The contents of this chapter are subject to revision as NDB Cluster continues to evolve. Additional information regarding NDB Cluster can be found on the MySQL website at http://www.mysql.com/products/cluster/.

Additional Resources.  More information about NDB Cluster can be found in the following places: