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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Determination of Safe and Unsafe Statements in Binary Logging Determination of Safe and Unsafe Statements in Binary Logging

The safeness of a statement in MySQL Replication, refers to whether the statement and its effects can be replicated correctly using statement-based format. If this is true of the statement, we refer to the statement as safe; otherwise, we refer to it as unsafe.

In general, a statement is safe if it deterministic, and unsafe if it is not. However, certain nondeterministic functions are not considered unsafe (see Nondeterministic functions not considered unsafe, later in this section). In addition, statements using results from floating-point math functions—which are hardware-dependent—are always considered unsafe (see Section, “Replication and Floating-Point Values”).

Handling of safe and unsafe statements.  A statement is treated differently depending on whether the statement is considered safe, and with respect to the binary logging format (that is, the current value of binlog_format).

  • When using row-based logging, no distinction is made in the treatment of safe and unsafe statements.

  • When using mixed-format logging, statements flagged as unsafe are logged using the row-based format; statements regarded as safe are logged using the statement-based format.

  • When using statement-based logging, statements flagged as being unsafe generate a warning to this effect. Safe statements are logged normally.

Each statement flagged as unsafe generates a warning. Formerly, if a large number of such statements were executed on the source, this could lead to excessively large error log files. To prevent this, MySQL 5.7 provides a warning suppression mechanism, which behaves as follows: Whenever the 50 most recent ER_BINLOG_UNSAFE_STATEMENT warnings have been generated more than 50 times in any 50-second period, warning suppression is enabled. When activated, this causes such warnings not to be written to the error log; instead, for each 50 warnings of this type, a note The last warning was repeated N times in last S seconds is written to the error log. This continues as long as the 50 most recent such warnings were issued in 50 seconds or less; once the rate has decreased below this threshold, the warnings are once again logged normally. Warning suppression has no effect on how the safety of statements for statement-based logging is determined, nor on how warnings are sent to the client. MySQL clients still receive one warning for each such statement.

For more information, see Section 16.2.1, “Replication Formats”.

Statements considered unsafe.  Statements with the following characteristics are considered unsafe:

For additional information, see Section 16.4.1, “Replication Features and Issues”.