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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual
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21.1.5.1 Differences Between the NDB and InnoDB Storage Engines

The NDB storage engine is implemented using a distributed, shared-nothing architecture, which causes it to behave differently from InnoDB in a number of ways. For those unaccustomed to working with NDB, unexpected behaviors can arise due to its distributed nature with regard to transactions, foreign keys, table limits, and other characteristics. These are shown in the following table:

Table 21.1 Differences between InnoDB and NDB storage engines

Feature InnoDB (MySQL 5.7) NDB 7.5/7.6
MySQL Server Version 5.7 5.7
InnoDB Version InnoDB 5.7.24 InnoDB 5.7.24
NDB Cluster Version N/A NDB 7.5.11/7.6.7
Storage Limits 64TB 128TB (as of NDB 7.5.2)
Foreign Keys Yes Yes
Transactions All standard types READ COMMITTED
MVCC Yes No
Data Compression Yes No (NDB checkpoint and backup files can be compressed)
Large Row Support (> 14K) Supported for VARBINARY, VARCHAR, BLOB, and TEXT columns Supported for BLOB and TEXT columns only (Using these types to store very large amounts of data can lower NDB performance)
Replication Support Asynchronous and semisynchronous replication using MySQL Replication; MySQL Group Replication Automatic synchronous replication within an NDB Cluster; asynchronous replication between NDB Clusters, using MySQL Replication (Semisynchronous replication is not supported)
Scaleout for Read Operations Yes (MySQL Replication) Yes (Automatic partitioning in NDB Cluster; NDB Cluster Replication)
Scaleout for Write Operations Requires application-level partitioning (sharding) Yes (Automatic partitioning in NDB Cluster is transparent to applications)
High Availability (HA) Built-in, from InnoDB cluster Yes (Designed for 99.999% uptime)
Node Failure Recovery and Failover From MySQL Group Replication Automatic (Key element in NDB architecture)
Time for Node Failure Recovery 30 seconds or longer Typically < 1 second
Real-Time Performance No Yes
In-Memory Tables No Yes (Some data can optionally be stored on disk; both in-memory and disk data storage are durable)
NoSQL Access to Storage Engine Yes Yes (Multiple APIs, including Memcached, Node.js/JavaScript, Java, JPA, C++, and HTTP/REST)
Concurrent and Parallel Writes Yes Up to 48 writers, optimized for concurrent writes
Conflict Detection and Resolution (Multiple Replication Masters) Yes (MySQL Group Replication) Yes
Hash Indexes No Yes
Online Addition of Nodes Read/write replicas using MySQL Group Replication Yes (all node types)
Online Upgrades Yes (using replication) Yes
Online Schema Modifications Yes, as part of MySQL 5.7 Yes


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