keyring_aws plugin is an extension
included in MySQL Enterprise Edition, a commercial product. To learn more about
commercial products, see http://www.mysql.com/products/.
keyring_aws plugin is a keyring plugin
that communicates with the Amazon Web Services Key Management
Service (AWS KMS) as a back end for key generation and uses a
local file for key storage. All keyring material is generated
exclusively by the AWS server, not by
keyring_aws is available on these platforms:
OS X 10.10 and 10.11
Ubuntu 14.04 and 16.04
The discussion here assumes that you are familiar with AWS in general and KMS in particular. Some pertinent information sources:
The following sections provide configuration and usage
information for the
To install the
keyring_aws plugin, use the
general installation instructions found in
Section 18.104.22.168, “Keyring Plugin Installation”, together with the
plugin-specific configuration information found here.
The plugin library file contains the
keyring_aws plugin and two user-defined
keyring_aws, you must obtain a
secret access key that provides credentials for communicating
with AWS KMS and write it to a configuration file:
Create an AWS KMS account.
Use AWS KMS to create a secret access key ID and secret access key. The access key serves to verify your identity and that of your applications.
If necessary, create the directory in which the configuration file will be located. The directory should have a restrictive mode and be accessible only to the account used to run the MySQL server. For example, on Unix and Unix-like systems, to use
/usr/local/mysql/mysql-keyring/keyring_aws_confas the file name, the following commands (executed as
root) create its parent directory and set the directory mode and ownership:
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql shell> mkdir mysql-keyring shell> chmod 750 mysql-keyring shell> chown mysql mysql-keyring shell> chgrp mysql mysql-keyring
At MySQL startup, set the
keyring_aws_conf_filesystem variable to
/usr/local/mysql/mysql-keyring/keyring_aws_confto indicate the configuration file location to the server.
keyring_awsconfiguration file, which should contain two lines:
Line 1: The secret access key ID
Line 2: The secret access key
For example, if the key ID is
AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLEand the key is
wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY, the configuration file looks like this:
keyring_aws must be loaded at each server
startup using the
--early-plugin-load option. The
variables optionally configure the locations of the files used
keyring_aws plugin for configuration
information and data storage. The variable default values are
platform specific. To configure the file locations explicitly,
set the variable values at startup. For example, use these
lines in the server
my.cnf file (adjust
.so suffix and file locations for
your platform as necessary):
[mysqld] early-plugin-load=keyring_aws.so keyring_aws_conf_file=/usr/local/mysql/mysql-keyring/keyring_aws_conf keyring_aws_data_file=/usr/local/mysql/mysql-keyring/keyring_aws_data
keyring_aws plugin to start
successfully, the configuration file must exist and contain
valid secret access key information, initialized as described
previously. The storage file need not exist. If it does not,
keyring_aws attempts to create it (as well
as its parent directory, if necessary). For additional
Section 22.214.171.124, “Keyring System Variables”.
Start the MySQL server and install the UDFs associated with
keyring_aws plugin. This is a one-time
operation, performed by executing the following statements
.so suffix for your platform
CREATE FUNCTION keyring_aws_rotate_cms RETURNS INTEGER SONAME 'keyring_aws.so'; CREATE FUNCTION keyring_aws_rotate_keys RETURNS INTEGER SONAME 'keyring_aws.so';
Obtain a customer master key (CMK) from AWS:
Use the AWS KMS account (created previously) to create a CMK.
Connect to the MySQL server and set the
keyring_aws_cmk_idsystem variable to the CMK ID obtained from the AWS KMS server. For example:
SET GLOBAL keyring_aws_cmk_id = 'arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/abcd1234-ef56-ab12-cd34-ef56abcd1234';
SET GLOBALsets the value for the running MySQL instance. To also set the value for subsequent restarts, set the variable in the server
At plugin startup, the
reads the AWS secret access key ID and key from its
configuration file. It also reads any encrypted keys contained
in its storage file into its in-memory cache.
encrypted keys in the in-memory cache and uses the storage
file as local persistent storage. Each keyring operation is
successfully changes both the in-memory key cache and the
keyring storage file, or the operation fails and the keyring
state remains unchanged.
To ensure that keys are flushed only when the correct keyring
storage file exists,
keyring_aws stores a
SHA-256 checksum of the keyring in the file. Before updating
the file, the plugin verifies that it contains the expected
keyring_aws does not cache unencrypted keys
in memory. (Between keyring operations, no unencrypted key
material is stored in memory.)
keyring_aws plugin supports the
functions that comprise the standard keyring service
interface. Keyring operations performed by these functions are
accessible at two levels:
C interface: In C-language code, call the keyring service functions described in Section 28.3.2, “The Keyring Service”.
SQL interface: In SQL statements, call the user-defined functions (UDFs) described in Section 126.96.36.199, “General-Purpose Keyring Key-Management Functions”.
Example (using UDFs):
SELECT keyring_key_generate('MyKey', 'AES', 32); SELECT keyring_key_remove('MyKey');
In addition, the
“extend” the keyring plugin interface to provide
AWS-related capabilities not covered by the standard keyring
service interface. These capabilities are accessible only by
calling the UDFs. There are no corresponding C-languge key
The key types permitted by
described in Section 188.8.131.52, “Supported Keyring Key Types”.
Assuming that the
keyring_aws plugin has
initialized properly at server startup, it is possible to
change the credentials used for communicating with AWS KMS:
Use AWS KMS to create a new secret access key ID and secret access key.
Store the new credentials in the configuration file (the file named by the
keyring_aws_conf_filesystem variable). The file format is as described previously.
keyring_awsplugin so that it rereads the configuration file. Assuming that the new credentials are valid, the plugin should initialize successfully.
There are two ways to reinitialize the plugin:
Restart the server. This is simpler and has has no side effects, but is not suitable for installations that require minimal server downtime with as few restarts as possible.
Reinitialize the plugin without restarting the server by executing the following statements (adjust the
.sosuffix for your platform as necessary):
UNINSTALL PLUGIN keyring_aws; INSTALL PLUGIN keyring_aws SONAME 'keyring_aws.so';Note
In addition to loading a plugin at runtime,
INSTALL PLUGINhas the side effect of registering the plugin it in the
mysql.pluginsystem table. Because of this, if you decide to stop using
keyring_aws, it is not sufficient to remove the
--early-plugin-loadoption from the set of options used to start the server. That stops the plugin from loading early, but the server still attempts to load it when it gets to the point in the startup sequence where it loads the plugins registered in
Consequently, if you execute the
INSTALL PLUGINsequence just described to change the AWS KMS credentials, then to stop using
keyring_aws, it is necessary to execute
UNINSTALL PLUGINagain to unregister the plugin in addition to removing the