After installing MySQL, you must initialize the data directory,
including the tables in the
database. For some MySQL installation methods, data directory
initialization may be done automatically, as described in
Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”. For other installation
methods, including installation from generic binary and source
distributions, you must initialize the data directory yourself.
This section describes how to initialize the data directory on Unix and Unix-like systems. (For Windows, see Section 2.3.7, “Windows Postinstallation Procedures”.) For some suggested commands that you can use to test whether the server is accessible and working properly, see Section 2.10.3, “Testing the Server”.
In the examples shown here, the server runs under the user ID of
mysql login account. This assumes that such
an account exists. Either create the account if it does not exist,
or substitute the name of a different existing login account that
you plan to use for running the server. For information about
creating the account, see
mysql System User and Group, in
Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.
Change location into the top-level directory of your MySQL installation, represented here by
shell> cd BASEDIR
BASEDIRis likely to be something like
/usr/local. The following steps assume that you have changed location to this directory.
You will find several files and subdirectories in the
BASEDIRdirectory. The most important for installation purposes is the
binsubdirectory, which contains the server as well as client and utility programs.
Create a directory that provides a location to use as the value of the
secure_file_privsystem variable that limits import/export operations to a specific directory. See Section 5.1.5, “Server System Variables”.
shell> mkdir mysql-files shell> chmod 750 mysql-files
If necessary, ensure that the distribution contents are accessible to
mysql. If you installed the distribution as
mysql, no further action is required. If you installed the distribution as
root, its contents will be owned by
root. Change its ownership to
mysqlby executing the following commands as
rootin the installation directory. The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the
mysqluser. The second changes the group attribute to the
shell> chown -R mysql . shell> chgrp -R mysql .
If necessary, initialize the data directory, including the
mysqldatabase containing the initial MySQL grant tables that determine how users are permitted to connect to the server.
Typically, data directory initialization need be done only the first time you install MySQL. If you are upgrading an existing installation, you should run mysql_upgrade instead (see Section 4.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”). However, the command that initializes the data directory does not overwrite any existing privilege tables, so it should be safe to run in any circumstances.
As of MySQL 5.7.6, use the server to initialize the data directory:
shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
Before MySQL 5.7.6, use mysql_install_db:
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
For more information, see Section 188.8.131.52, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld”, or Section 184.108.40.206, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysql_install_db”, depending on which command you use.Note
Initialization of the data directory might fail because some required software libraries are missing from your system. For example:
shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql bin/mysqld: error while loading shared libraries: libnuma.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
When this happens, you have to install the missing libraries manually or with your system's package manager before retrying the data directory initialization.
If you want the server to be able to deploy with automatic support for secure connections, use the mysql_ssl_rsa_setup utility to create default SSL and RSA files:
For more information, see Section 4.4.5, “mysql_ssl_rsa_setup — Create SSL/RSA Files”.
After initializing the data directory, you can establish the final installation ownership settings. To leave the installation owned by
mysql, no action is required here. Otherwise, most of the MySQL installation can be owned by
rootif you like. The exception is that the data directory and the
mysql-filesdirectory must be owned by
mysql. To accomplish this, run the following commands as
rootin the installation directory. For some distribution types, the data directory might be named
data; adjust the second command accordingly.
shell> chown -R root . shell> chown -R mysql data mysql-files
If the plugin directory (the directory named by the
plugin_dirsystem variable) is writable by the server, it may be possible for a user to write executable code to a file in the directory using
SELECT ... INTO DUMPFILE. This can be prevented by making the plugin directory read only to the server or by setting the
secure_file_privsystem variable at server startup to a directory where
SELECTwrites can be performed safely. (For example, set it to the
mysql-filesdirectory created earlier.)
To specify options that the MySQL server should use at startup, put them in a
/etc/mysql/my.cnffile. You can use such a file, for example, to set the
secure_file_privsystem variable. See Section 5.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”. If you do not do this, the server starts with its default settings.
If you want MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, see Section 2.10.5, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”.
Data directory initialization creates time zone tables in the
mysql database but does not populate them. To
do so, use the instructions in
Section 10.6, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.