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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle

Pre-General Availability Draft: 2017-11-19

2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle

The recommended way to install MySQL on RPM-based Linux distributions is by using the RPM packages provided by Oracle. There are two sources for obtaining them, for the Community Edition of MySQL:

Note

RPM distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by Oracle in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the installation instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

RPM packages for MySQL are listed in the following tables:

Table 2.7 RPM Packages for MySQL Community Edition

Package NameSummary
mysql-community-serverDatabase server and related tools
mysql-community-clientMySQL client applications and tools
mysql-community-commonCommon files for server and client libraries
mysql-community-server-minimalMinimal installation of the database server and related tools
mysql-community-devel Development header files and libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-community-libs Shared libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-community-libs-compatShared compatibility libraries for previous MySQL installations
mysql-community-test Test suite for the MySQL server

The full names for the RPMs have the following syntax:

packagename-version-distribution-arch.rpm

The distribution and arch values indicate the Linux distribution and the processor type for which the package was built. See the table below for lists of the distribution identifiers:

Table 2.8 MySQL Linux RPM Package Distribution Identifiers

distribution ValueIntended Use
el6, el7Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 6 or 7
fc25, fc26, fc27Fedora 25, 26, 27
sles12SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12

To see all files in an RPM package (for example, mysql-community-server), use the following command:

shell> rpm -qpl mysql-community-server-version-distribution-arch.rpm

The discussion in the rest of this section applies only to an installation process using the RPM packages directly downloaded from Oracle, instead of through a MySQL repository.

Dependency relationships exist among some of the packages. If you plan to install many of the packages, you may wish to download the RPM bundle tar file instead, which contains all the RPM packages listed above, so that you need not download them separately.

In most cases, you need to install the mysql-community-server, mysql-community-client, mysql-community-libs, mysql-community-common, and mysql-community-libs-compat packages to get a functional, standard MySQL installation. To perform such a standard, basic installation, go to the folder that contains all those packages (and, preferably, no other RPM packages with similar names), and issue the following command:

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-*

Replace yum with zypper for SLES, and with dnf for Fedora.

While it is much preferable to use a high-level package management tool like yum to install the packages, users who prefer direct rpm commands can replace the yum install command with the rpm -Uvh command; however, using rpm -Uvh instead makes the installation process more prone to failure, due to potential dependency issues the installation process might run into.

To install only the client programs, you can skip mysql-community-server in your list of packages to install; issue the following command:

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-{client,common,libs}-*

Replace yum with zypper for SLES, and with dnf for Fedora.

A standard installation of MySQL using the RPM packages result in files and resources created under the system directories, shown in the following table.

Table 2.9 MySQL Installation Layout for Linux RPM Packages from the MySQL Developer Zone

Files or ResourcesLocation
Client programs and scripts/usr/bin
mysqld server/usr/sbin
Configuration file/etc/my.cnf
Data directory/var/lib/mysql
Error log file

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS or Fedora platforms: /var/log/mysqld.log

For SLES: /var/log/mysql/mysqld.log

Value of secure_file_priv/var/lib/mysql-files
System V init script

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS or Fedora platforms: /etc/init.d/mysqld

For SLES: /etc/init.d/mysql

Systemd service

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS or Fedora platforms: mysqld

For SLES: mysql

Pid file /var/run/mysql/mysqld.pid
Socket/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
Keyring directory/var/lib/mysql-keyring
Unix manual pages/usr/share/man
Include (header) files/usr/include/mysql
Libraries/usr/lib/mysql
Miscellaneous support files (for example, error messages, and character set files)/usr/share/mysql

The installation also creates a user named mysql and a group named mysql on the system.

Note

Installation of previous versions of MySQL using older packages might have created a configuration file named /usr/my.cnf. It is highly recommended that you examine the contents of the file and migrate the desired settings inside to the file /etc/my.cnf file, then remove /usr/my.cnf.

MySQL is NOT automatically started at the end of the installation process. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, CentOS, and Fedora systems, use the following command to start MySQL:

shell> sudo service mysqld start

For SLES systems, the command is the same, but the service name is different:

shell> sudo service mysql start

If the operating system is systemd enabled, standard service commands such as stop, start, status and restart should be used to manage the MySQL server service. The mysqld service is enabled by default, and it starts at system reboot. Notice that certain things might work differently on systemd platforms: for example, changing the location of the data directory might cause issues. See Section 2.5.9, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd” for additional information.

At the initial start up of the server, the following happens, given that the data directory of the server is empty:

  • The server is initialized.

  • An SSL certificate and key files are generated in the data directory.

  • The validate_password plugin is installed and enabled.

  • A superuser account 'root'@'localhost' is created. A password for the superuser is set and stored in the error log file. To reveal it, use the following command for RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS, and Fedora systems:

    shell> sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log

    Use the following command for SLES systems:

    shell> sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysql/mysqld.log

    The next step is to log in with the generated, temporary password and set a custom password for the superuser account:

shell> mysql -uroot -p
mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!';
Note

MySQL's validate_password plugin is installed by default. This will require that passwords contain at least one upper case letter, one lower case letter, one digit, and one special character, and that the total password length is at least 8 characters.

If something goes wrong during installation, you might find debug information in the error log file /var/log/mysqld.log.

For some Linux distributions, it might be necessary to increase the limit on number of file descriptors available to mysqld. See Section B.5.2.17, “File Not Found and Similar Errors”

Installing Client Libraries from Multiple MySQL Versions.  It is possible to install multiple client library versions, such as for the case that you want to maintain compatibility with older applications linked against previous libraries. To install an older client library, use the --oldpackage option with rpm. For example, to install mysql-community-libs-5.5 on an EL6 system that has libmysqlclient.21 from MySQL 8.0, use a command like this:

shell> rpm --oldpackage -ivh mysql-community-libs-5.5.50-2.el6.x86_64.rpm

Debug Package.  A special variant of MySQL Server compiled with the debug package has been included in the server RPM packages. It performs debugging and memory allocation checks and produces a trace file when the server is running. To use that debug version, start MySQL with /usr/sbin/mysqld-debug, instead of starting it as a service or with /usr/sbin/mysqld. See Section 29.5.3, “The DBUG Package” for the debug options you can use.

Rebuilding RPMs from source SRPMs.  Source code SRPM packages for MySQL are available for download. They can be used as-is to rebuild the MySQL RPMs with the standard rpmbuild tool chain.


User Comments
  Posted by Bahadir Malkoç on July 2, 2013
For Centos 6, RPM may complain that you may have mysql-libs that is of version 5.1 due to crontabs. You can do the following to solve this issue:

rpm -i MySQL-shared-compat-*
yum remove mysql-libs
rpm -i MySQL-server-*
rpm -i MySQL-client-*
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