TIMESTAMP types are related. This section
describes their characteristics, how they are similar, and how
they differ. MySQL recognizes
values in several formats, described in
Section 9.1.3, “Date and Time Literals”. For the
descriptions, “supported” means that although
earlier values might work, there is no guarantee.
DATE type is used for values with a date
part but no time part. MySQL retrieves and displays
DATE values in
format. The supported range is
DATETIME type is used for values that
contain both date and time parts. MySQL retrieves and displays
DATETIME values in
' format. The supported range is
'1000-01-01 00:00:00' to
TIMESTAMP data type is used for values
that contain both date and time parts.
TIMESTAMP has a range of
00:00:01' UTC to
value can include a trailing fractional seconds part in up to
microseconds (6 digits) precision. In particular, any fractional
part in a value inserted into a
TIMESTAMP column is stored rather than
discarded. With the fractional part included, the format for
these values is
the range for
DATETIME values is
'1000-01-01 00:00:00.000000' to
'9999-12-31 23:59:59.999999', and the range
TIMESTAMP values is
03:14:07.999999'. The fractional part should always be
separated from the rest of the time by a decimal point; no other
fractional seconds delimiter is recognized. For information
about fractional seconds support in MySQL, see
Section 11.2.6, “Fractional Seconds in Time Values”.
data types offer automatic initialization and updating to the
current date and time. For more information, see
Section 11.2.5, “Automatic Initialization and Updating for TIMESTAMP and DATETIME”.
TIMESTAMP values from the
current time zone to UTC for storage, and back from UTC to the
current time zone for retrieval. (This does not occur for other
types such as
DATETIME.) By default, the
current time zone for each connection is the server's time. The
time zone can be set on a per-connection basis. As long as the
time zone setting remains constant, you get back the same value
you store. If you store a
and then change the time zone and retrieve the value, the
retrieved value is different from the value you stored. This
occurs because the same time zone was not used for conversion in
both directions. The current time zone is available as the value
variable. For more information, see
Section 5.1.15, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.
In MySQL 8.0.19 and later, you can specify a time zone offset
when inserting a
DATETIME value into a table. See
Section 9.1.3, “Date and Time Literals”, for more information
TIMESTAMP values are converted to the
“zero” value of the appropriate type
00:00:00'), if the SQL mode permits this conversion.
The precise behavior depends on which if any of strict SQL mode
NO_ZERO_DATE SQL mode
are enabled; see Section 5.1.11, “Server SQL Modes”.
In MySQL 8.0.22 and later, you can convert
TIMESTAMP values to UTC
DATETIME values when retrieving them using
CAST() with the
ZONE operator, as shown here:
mysql> SELECT col, > CAST(col AT TIME ZONE INTERVAL '+00:00' AS DATETIME) AS ut > FROM ts ORDER BY id; +---------------------+---------------------+ | col | ut | +---------------------+---------------------+ | 2020-01-01 10:10:10 | 2020-01-01 15:10:10 | | 2019-12-31 23:40:10 | 2020-01-01 04:40:10 | | 2020-01-01 13:10:10 | 2020-01-01 18:10:10 | | 2020-01-01 10:10:10 | 2020-01-01 15:10:10 | | 2020-01-01 04:40:10 | 2020-01-01 09:40:10 | | 2020-01-01 18:10:10 | 2020-01-01 23:10:10 | +---------------------+---------------------+
For complete information regarding syntax and additional
examples, see the description of the
Be aware of certain properties of date value interpretation in MySQL:
MySQL permits a “relaxed” format for values specified as strings, in which any punctuation character may be used as the delimiter between date parts or time parts. In some cases, this syntax can be deceiving. For example, a value such as
'10:11:12'might look like a time value because of the
:, but is interpreted as the year
'2010-11-12'if used in date context. The value
'10:45:15'is converted to
'45'is not a valid month.
The only delimiter recognized between a date and time part and a fractional seconds part is the decimal point.
The server requires that month and day values be valid, and not merely in the range 1 to 12 and 1 to 31, respectively. With strict mode disabled, invalid dates such as
'2004-04-31'are converted to
'0000-00-00'and a warning is generated. With strict mode enabled, invalid dates generate an error. To permit such dates, enable
ALLOW_INVALID_DATES. See Section 5.1.11, “Server SQL Modes”, for more information.
MySQL does not accept
TIMESTAMPvalues that include a zero in the day or month column or values that are not a valid date. The sole exception to this rule is the special “zero” value
'0000-00-00 00:00:00', if the SQL mode permits this value. The precise behavior depends on which if any of strict SQL mode and the
NO_ZERO_DATESQL mode are enabled; see Section 5.1.11, “Server SQL Modes”.
Dates containing 2-digit year values are ambiguous because the century is unknown. MySQL interprets 2-digit year values using these rules:
Year values in the range
Year values in the range
See also Section 11.2.8, “2-Digit Years in Dates”.