MySQL provides optimizer control through system variables that affect how query plans are evaluated, switchable optimizations, optimizer and index hints, and the optimizer cost model.
The server maintains histogram statistics about column values in
column_statistics data dictionary table
(see Section 8.9.6, “Optimizer Statistics”). Like other data
dictionary tables, this table is not directly accessible by users.
Instead, you can obtain histogram information by querying
which is implemented as a view on the data dictionary table. You
can also perform histogram management using the
ANALYZE TABLE statement.