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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Index Condition Pushdown Optimization Index Condition Pushdown Optimization

Index Condition Pushdown (ICP) is an optimization for the case where MySQL retrieves rows from a table using an index. Without ICP, the storage engine traverses the index to locate rows in the base table and returns them to the MySQL server which evaluates the WHERE condition for the rows. With ICP enabled, and if parts of the WHERE condition can be evaluated by using only columns from the index, the MySQL server pushes this part of the WHERE condition down to the storage engine. The storage engine then evaluates the pushed index condition by using the index entry and only if this is satisfied is the row read from the table. ICP can reduce the number of times the storage engine must access the base table and the number of times the MySQL server must access the storage engine.

Applicability of the Index Condition Pushdown optimization is subject to these conditions:

  • ICP is used for the range, ref, eq_ref, and ref_or_null access methods when there is a need to access full table rows.

  • ICP can be used for InnoDB and MyISAM tables, including partitioned InnoDB and MyISAM tables.

  • For InnoDB tables, ICP is used only for secondary indexes. The goal of ICP is to reduce the number of full-row reads and thereby reduce I/O operations. For InnoDB clustered indexes, the complete record is already read into the InnoDB buffer. Using ICP in this case does not reduce I/O.

  • ICP is not supported with secondary indexes created on virtual generated columns. InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual generated columns.

  • Conditions that refer to subqueries cannot be pushed down.

  • Conditions that refer to stored functions cannot be pushed down. Storage engines cannot invoke stored functions.

  • Triggered conditions cannot be pushed down. (For information about triggered conditions, see Section, “Optimizing Subqueries with the EXISTS Strategy”.)

  • (MySQL 8.0.30 and later:) Conditions cannot be pushed down to derived tables containing references to system variables.

To understand how this optimization works, first consider how an index scan proceeds when Index Condition Pushdown is not used:

  1. Get the next row, first by reading the index tuple, and then by using the index tuple to locate and read the full table row.

  2. Test the part of the WHERE condition that applies to this table. Accept or reject the row based on the test result.

Using Index Condition Pushdown, the scan proceeds like this instead:

  1. Get the next row's index tuple (but not the full table row).

  2. Test the part of the WHERE condition that applies to this table and can be checked using only index columns. If the condition is not satisfied, proceed to the index tuple for the next row.

  3. If the condition is satisfied, use the index tuple to locate and read the full table row.

  4. Test the remaining part of the WHERE condition that applies to this table. Accept or reject the row based on the test result.

EXPLAIN output shows Using index condition in the Extra column when Index Condition Pushdown is used. It does not show Using index because that does not apply when full table rows must be read.

Suppose that a table contains information about people and their addresses and that the table has an index defined as INDEX (zipcode, lastname, firstname). If we know a person's zipcode value but are not sure about the last name, we can search like this:

SELECT * FROM people
  WHERE zipcode='95054'
  AND lastname LIKE '%etrunia%'
  AND address LIKE '%Main Street%';

MySQL can use the index to scan through people with zipcode='95054'. The second part (lastname LIKE '%etrunia%') cannot be used to limit the number of rows that must be scanned, so without Index Condition Pushdown, this query must retrieve full table rows for all people who have zipcode='95054'.

With Index Condition Pushdown, MySQL checks the lastname LIKE '%etrunia%' part before reading the full table row. This avoids reading full rows corresponding to index tuples that match the zipcode condition but not the lastname condition.

Index Condition Pushdown is enabled by default. It can be controlled with the optimizer_switch system variable by setting the index_condition_pushdown flag:

SET optimizer_switch = 'index_condition_pushdown=off';
SET optimizer_switch = 'index_condition_pushdown=on';

See Section 10.9.2, “Switchable Optimizations”.