Documentation Home
MySQL 8.4 Reference Manual
Related Documentation Download this Manual
PDF (US Ltr) - 39.9Mb
PDF (A4) - 40.0Mb
Man Pages (TGZ) - 258.3Kb
Man Pages (Zip) - 365.3Kb
Info (Gzip) - 4.0Mb
Info (Zip) - 4.0Mb

MySQL 8.4 Reference Manual  /  MySQL Performance Schema  /  Performance Schema Statement Digests and Sampling

29.10 Performance Schema Statement Digests and Sampling

The MySQL server is capable of maintaining statement digest information. The digesting process converts each SQL statement to normalized form (the statement digest) and computes a SHA-256 hash value (the digest hash value) from the normalized result. Normalization permits statements that are similar to be grouped and summarized to expose information about the types of statements the server is executing and how often they occur. For each digest, a representative statement that produces the digest is stored as a sample. This section describes how statement digesting and sampling occur and how they can be useful.

Digesting occurs in the parser regardless of whether the Performance Schema is available, so that other features such as MySQL Enterprise Firewall and query rewrite plugins have access to statement digests.

Statement Digest General Concepts

When the parser receives an SQL statement, it computes a statement digest if that digest is needed, which is true if any of the following conditions are true:

  • Performance Schema digest instrumentation is enabled

  • MySQL Enterprise Firewall is enabled

  • A query rewrite plugin is enabled

The parser is also used by the STATEMENT_DIGEST_TEXT() and STATEMENT_DIGEST() functions, which applications can call to compute a normalized statement digest and a digest hash value, respectively, from an SQL statement.

The max_digest_length system variable value determines the maximum number of bytes available per session for computation of normalized statement digests. Once that amount of space is used during digest computation, truncation occurs: no further tokens from a parsed statement are collected or figure into its digest value. Statements that differ only after that many bytes of parsed tokens produce the same normalized statement digest and are considered identical if compared or if aggregated for digest statistics.


Setting the max_digest_length system variable to zero disables digest production, which also disables server functionality that requires digests.

After the normalized statement has been computed, a SHA-256 hash value is computed from it. In addition:

  • If MySQL Enterprise Firewall is enabled, it is called and the digest as computed is available to it.

  • If any query rewrite plugin is enabled, it is called and the statement digest and digest value are available to it.

  • If the Performance Schema has digest instrumentation enabled, it makes a copy of the normalized statement digest, allocating a maximum of performance_schema_max_digest_length bytes for it. Consequently, if performance_schema_max_digest_length is less than max_digest_length, the copy is truncated relative to the original. The copy of the normalized statement digest is stored in the appropriate Performance Schema tables, along with the SHA-256 hash value computed from the original normalized statement. (If the Performance Schema truncates its copy of the normalized statement digest relative to the original, it does not recompute the SHA-256 hash value.)

Statement normalization transforms the statement text to a more standardized digest string representation that preserves the general statement structure while removing information not essential to the structure:

  • Object identifiers such as database and table names are preserved.

  • Literal values are converted to parameter markers. A normalized statement does not retain information such as names, passwords, dates, and so forth.

  • Comments are removed and whitespace is adjusted.

Consider these statements:

SELECT * FROM orders WHERE customer_id=10 AND quantity>20
SELECT * FROM orders WHERE customer_id = 20 AND quantity > 100

To normalize these statements, the parser replaces data values by ? and adjusts whitespace. Both statements yield the same normalized form and thus are considered the same:

SELECT * FROM orders WHERE customer_id = ? AND quantity > ?

The normalized statement contains less information but is still representative of the original statement. Other similar statements that have different data values have the same normalized form.

Now consider these statements:

SELECT * FROM customers WHERE customer_id = 1000
SELECT * FROM orders WHERE customer_id = 1000

In this case, the normalized statements differ because the object identifiers differ:

SELECT * FROM customers WHERE customer_id = ?
SELECT * FROM orders WHERE customer_id = ?

If normalization produces a statement that exceeds the space available in the digest buffer (as determined by max_digest_length), truncation occurs and the text ends with .... Long normalized statements that differ only in the part that occurs following the ... are considered the same. Consider these statements:

SELECT * FROM mytable WHERE cola = 10 AND colb = 20
SELECT * FROM mytable WHERE cola = 10 AND colc = 20

If the cutoff happens to be right after the AND, both statements have this normalized form:

SELECT * FROM mytable WHERE cola = ? AND ...

In this case, the difference in the second column name is lost and both statements are considered the same.

Statement Digests in the Performance Schema

In the Performance Schema, statement digesting involves these elements:

Some Performance Tables have a column that stores original SQL statements from which digests are computed:

The maximum space available for statement display is 1024 bytes by default. To change this value, set the performance_schema_max_sql_text_length system variable at server startup. Changes affect the storage required for all the columns just named.

The performance_schema_max_digest_length system variable determines the maximum number of bytes available per statement for digest value storage in the Performance Schema. However, the display length of statement digests may be longer than the available buffer size due to internal encoding of statement elements such as keywords and literal values. Consequently, values selected from the DIGEST_TEXT column of statement event tables may appear to exceed the performance_schema_max_digest_length value.

The events_statements_summary_by_digest summary table provides a profile of the statements executed by the server. It shows what kinds of statements an application is executing and how often. An application developer can use this information together with other information in the table to assess the application's performance characteristics. For example, table columns that show wait times, lock times, or index use may highlight types of queries that are inefficient. This gives the developer insight into which parts of the application need attention.

The events_statements_summary_by_digest summary table has a fixed size. By default the Performance Schema estimates the size to use at startup. To specify the table size explicitly, set the performance_schema_digests_size system variable at server startup. If the table becomes full, the Performance Schema groups statements that have SCHEMA_NAME and DIGEST values not matching existing values in the table in a special row with SCHEMA_NAME and DIGEST set to NULL. This permits all statements to be counted. However, if the special row accounts for a significant percentage of the statements executed, it might be desirable to increase the summary table size by increasing performance_schema_digests_size.

Statement Digest Memory Use

For applications that generate very long statements that differ only at the end, increasing max_digest_length enables computation of digests that distinguish statements that would otherwise aggregate to the same digest. Conversely, decreasing max_digest_length causes the server to devote less memory to digest storage but increases the likelihood of longer statements aggregating to the same digest. Administrators should keep in mind that larger values result in correspondingly increased memory requirements, particularly for workloads that involve large numbers of simultaneous sessions (the server allocates max_digest_length bytes per session).

As described previously, normalized statement digests as computed by the parser are constrained to a maximum of max_digest_length bytes, whereas normalized statement digests stored in the Performance Schema use performance_schema_max_digest_length bytes. The following memory-use considerations apply regarding the relative values of max_digest_length and performance_schema_max_digest_length:

Because the Performance Schema statement event tables might store many digests, setting performance_schema_max_digest_length smaller than max_digest_length enables administrators to balance these factors:

  • The need to have long normalized statement digests available to server features outside the Performance Schema

  • Many concurrent sessions, each of which allocates digest-computation memory

  • The need to limit memory consumption by the Performance Schema statement event tables when storing many statement digests

The performance_schema_max_digest_length setting is not per session, it is per statement, and a session can store multiple statements in the events_statements_history table. A typical number of statements in this table is 10 per session, so each session consumes 10 times the memory indicated by the performance_schema_max_digest_length value, for this table alone.

Also, there are many statements (and digests) collected globally, most notably in the events_statements_history_long table. Here, too, N statements stored consumes N times the memory indicated by the performance_schema_max_digest_length value.

To assess the amount of memory used for SQL statement storage and digest computation, use the SHOW ENGINE PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA STATUS statement, or monitor these instruments:

       FROM performance_schema.setup_instruments
       WHERE NAME LIKE '%.sqltext';
| NAME                                                             |
| memory/performance_schema/events_statements_history.sqltext      |
| memory/performance_schema/events_statements_current.sqltext      |
| memory/performance_schema/events_statements_history_long.sqltext |

       FROM performance_schema.setup_instruments
       WHERE NAME LIKE 'memory/performance_schema/%.tokens';
| NAME                                                                 |
| memory/performance_schema/events_statements_history.tokens           |
| memory/performance_schema/events_statements_current.tokens           |
| memory/performance_schema/events_statements_summary_by_digest.tokens |
| memory/performance_schema/events_statements_history_long.tokens      |

Statement Sampling

The Performance Schema uses statement sampling to collect representative statements that produce each digest value in the events_statements_summary_by_digest table. These columns store sample statement information: QUERY_SAMPLE_TEXT (the text of the statement), QUERY_SAMPLE_SEEN (when the statement was seen), and QUERY_SAMPLE_TIMER_WAIT (the statement wait or execution time). The Performance Schema updates all three columns each time it chooses a sample statement.

When a new table row is inserted, the statement that produced the row digest value is stored as the current sample statement associated with the digest. Thereafter, when the server sees other statements with the same digest value, it determines whether to use the new statement to replace the current sample statement (that is, whether to resample). Resampling policy is based on the comparative wait times of the current sample statement and new statement and, optionally, the age of the current sample statement:

  • Resampling based on wait times: If the new statement wait time has a wait time greater than that of the current sample statement, it becomes the current sample statement.

  • Resampling based on age: If the performance_schema_max_digest_sample_age system variable has a value greater than zero and the current sample statement is more than that many seconds old, the current statement is considered too old and the new statement replaces it. This occurs even if the new statement wait time is less than that of the current sample statement.

By default, performance_schema_max_digest_sample_age is 60 seconds (1 minute). To change how quickly sample statements expire due to age, increase or decrease the value. To disable the age-based part of the resampling policy, set performance_schema_max_digest_sample_age to 0.