mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.
If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.3, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair strategies.
You should execute mysql_upgrade each time you upgrade MySQL.
As of MySQL 5.7.5, mysql_upgrade communicates directly with the MySQL server, sending it the SQL statements required to perform an upgrade. Before 5.7.5, mysql_upgrade invokes the mysql and mysqlcheck client programs to perform the required operations. For the older implementation, if you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle”.)
In MySQL 5.7.11, the default
--early-plugin-load value was
the name of the
keyring_file plugin library
file, so that plugin was loaded by default.
InnoDB tablespace encryption requires the
keyring_file plugin to be loaded prior to
InnoDB initialization, so this change of
default value introduces an incompatibility for upgrades from
5.7.11 to 5.7.12 or higher. Administrators who have encrypted
InnoDB tablespaces must take explicit
action to ensure continued loading of the
keyring_file plugin: Start the server with
that names the plugin library file. For additional
information, see Section 6.5.4, “The MySQL Keyring”.
If you upgrade to MySQL 5.7.2 or later from a version older
than 5.7.2, a change to the
table requires a special sequence of steps to perform an
upgrade using mysql_upgrade. For details,
see Section 126.96.36.199, “Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.7”.
On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.
You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.
Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.
To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running. Then invoke it like this to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:
shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.
If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the appropriate port:
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options] shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options] shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]
For local host connections on Unix, the
forces a connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket
mysql_upgrade processes all tables in all databases, which might take a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.
All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.
mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version
number in a file named
in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all
tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking
can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check
regardless, use the
As of MySQL 5.7.2, mysql_upgrade checks
user table rows and, for any row with an
plugin column, sets that column to
'mysql_old_password' depending on the hash
format of the
Password column value. As of
MySQL 5.7.5, support for pre-4.1 password hashing and
mysql_old_password was removed, so
mysql_upgrade sets empty
plugin values to
'mysql_native_password' if the credentials
use a hash format compatible with that plugin. Rows with a
pre-4.1 password hash must be upgraded manually. For account
upgrade instructions, see Section 188.8.131.52, “Migrating Away from Pre-4.1 Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password
As of MySQL 5.7.7, unless invoked with the
mysql_upgrade installs the
sys schema if it is not installed, and
upgrades it to the current version otherwise.
mysql_upgrade returns an error if a
sys schema exists but has no
version view, on the assumption that its
absence indicates a user-created schema:
Error occurred: A sys schema exists with no sys.version view. If you have a user created sys schema, this must be renamed for the upgrade to succeed.
To upgrade in this case, remove or rename the existing
sys schema first.
In MySQL 5.7.9 and later, mysql_upgrade
checks for partitioned
InnoDB tables that
were created using the generic partitioning handler and attempts
to upgrade them to
InnoDB native partitioning
(used in MySQL 5.7.6 and later). (Bug #76734, Bug #20727344)
Also beginning with MySQL 5.7.9, you can upgrade such tables
individually in the mysql client using the
ALTER TABLE ...
UPGRADE PARTITIONING SQL statement.
By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL
root user. If the
password is expired when you run
mysql_upgrade, you will see a message that
your password is expired and that
mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct
this, reset the
root password to unexpire it
and run mysql_upgrade again. First, connect
to the server as
shell> mysql -u root -p Enter password: **** <- enter root password here
Reset the password using the appropriate SQL statement. As of
MySQL 5.7.6, use
mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';
Before 5.7.6, use
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');
shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
mysql_upgrade supports the following options,
which can be specified on the command line or in the
[client] groups of an option file. For
information about option files used by MySQL programs, see
Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.
|--bind-address||Use specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server||5.7.5|
|--character-sets-dir||Directory where character sets are installed|
|--compress||Compress all information sent between client and server|
|--debug||Write debugging log|
|--debug-check||Print debugging information when program exits|
|--debug-info||Print debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits|
|--default-auth||Authentication plugin to use|
|--default-character-set||Specify default character set|
|--defaults-extra-file||Read named option file in addition to usual option files|
|--defaults-file||Read only named option file|
|--defaults-group-suffix||Option group suffix value|
|--force||Force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for current version of MySQL|
|--help||Display help message and exit|
|--host||Connect to MySQL server on given host|
|--login-path||Read login path options from .mylogin.cnf|
|--max-allowed-packet||Maximum packet length to send to or receive from server||5.7.5|
|--net-buffer-length||Buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication||5.7.5|
|--no-defaults||Read no option files|
|--password||Password to use when connecting to server|
|--pipe||On Windows, connect to server using named pipe|
|--plugin-dir||Directory where plugins are installed|
|--port||TCP/IP port number for connection|
|--print-defaults||Print default options|
|--protocol||Connection protocol to use|
|--shared-memory-base-name||The name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections|
|--skip-sys-schema||Do not install or upgrade the sys schema||5.7.7|
|--socket||For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use|
|--ssl||Enable encrypted connection|
|--ssl-ca||File that contains list of trusted SSL Certificate Authorities|
|--ssl-capath||Directory that contains trusted SSL Certificate Authority certificate files|
|--ssl-cert||File that contains X509 certificate|
|--ssl-cipher||List of permitted ciphers for connection encryption|
|--ssl-crl||File that contains certificate revocation lists|
|--ssl-crlpath||Directory that contains certificate revocation list files|
|--ssl-key||File that contains X509 key|
|--ssl-mode||Security state of connection to server||5.7.11|
|--ssl-verify-server-cert||Verify host name against server certificate Common Name identity|
|--tls-version||Protocols permitted for encrypted connections||5.7.10|
|--tmpdir||Directory for temporary files||5.7.5|
|--upgrade-system-tables||Update only system tables, not data|
|--user||MySQL user name to use when connecting to server|
|--version-check||Check for proper server version||5.7.2|
|--write-binlog||Write all statements to binary log|
Display a short help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.2.
On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.
The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”.
Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression. The
-Cform of this option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.
The path to the data directory. This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.2.
Write a debugging log. A typical
d:t:o,. The default is
Print some debugging information when the program exits.
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.
A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.9, “Pluggable Authentication”.
charset_nameas the default character set. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”.
Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
file_nameis interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.
Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
file_nameis interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.
Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of
str. For example, mysql_upgrade normally reads the
[mysql_upgrade]groups. If the
--defaults-group-suffix=_otheroption is given, mysql_upgrade also reads the
mysql_upgrade_infofile and force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL.
Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.
Read options from the named login path in the
.mylogin.cnflogin path file. A “login path” is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See Section 4.6.6, “mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility”.
The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default value is 24MB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and 2GB. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.
The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default value is 1MB − 1KB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and 16MB. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.
Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file,
--no-defaultscan be used to prevent them from being read.
The exception is that the
.mylogin.cnffile, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when
--no-defaultsis used. (
.mylogin.cnfis created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See Section 4.6.6, “mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility”.)
The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (
-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the
passwordvalue following the
-poption on the command line, mysql_upgrade prompts for one.
Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section 184.108.40.206, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.
On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.
The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the
--default-authoption is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it. See Section 6.3.9, “Pluggable Authentication”.
The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.
Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.
The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.
On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is
MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.
The server must be started with the
--shared-memoryoption to enable shared-memory connections.
As of MySQL 5.7.7, mysql_upgrade installs the
sysschema if it is not installed, and upgrades it to the current version otherwise. The
--skip-sys-schemaoption suppresses this behavior. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.7.
For connections to
localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.
Options that begin with
--sslspecify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Section 6.4.2, “Command Options for Encrypted Connections”.
The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 6.4.6, “Encrypted Connection Protocols and Ciphers”.
This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.
The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files. This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.5 due to a reimplementation that no longer uses temporary files.
Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify that it is the same as the version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade exits. This option is enabled by default; to disable the check, use
--skip-version-check. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.2.