MySQL distributions on Unix include a script named mysql.server, which starts the server using mysqld_safe. It can be used on systems such as Linux and Solaris that use System V-style run directories to start and stop system services. It is also used by the OS X Startup Item for MySQL.
For MySQL installation using an RPM distribution, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd on several Linux platforms. On these platforms, mysql.server and mysqld_safe are no longer installed because they are unnecessary. For more information, see Section 2.5.10, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.
To start or stop the server manually using the
mysql.server script, invoke it with
Before mysql.server starts the server, it
changes location to the MySQL installation directory, and then
invokes mysqld_safe. To run the server as
some specific user, add an appropriate
option to the
[mysqld] group of the
/etc/my.cnf option file, as shown later in
this section. (It is possible that you must edit
mysql.server if you've installed a binary
distribution of MySQL in a nonstandard location. Modify it to
change location into the proper directory before it runs
mysqld_safe. If you do this, your modified
version of mysql.server may be overwritten if
you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make a copy of
your edited version that you can reinstall.)
To start and stop MySQL automatically on your server, you must
add start and stop commands to the appropriate places in your
If you use the Linux server RPM package
or a native Linux package installation, the
mysql.server script may be installed in the
/etc/init.d directory with the name
Section 2.5.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle”, for more information
on the Linux RPM packages.
Some vendors provide RPM packages that install a startup script under a different name such as mysqld.
If you install MySQL from a source distribution or using a
binary distribution format that does not install
mysql.server automatically, you can install
it manually. The script can be found in the
support-files directory under the MySQL
installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. Copy it to the
/etc/init.d directory with the name
mysql, and then make it executable:
cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqlshell>
chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysql
Older Red Hat systems use the
/etc/rc.d/init.d directory rather than
/etc/init.d. Adjust the preceding
commands accordingly. Alternatively, first create
/etc/init.d as a symbolic link that
ln -s rc.d/init.d .
After installing the script, the commands needed to activate it to run at system startup depend on your operating system. On Linux, you can use chkconfig:
chkconfig --add mysql
On some Linux systems, the following command also seems to be necessary to fully enable the mysql script:
chkconfig --level 345 mysql on
On FreeBSD, startup scripts generally should go in
rc(8) manual page states that scripts in this
directory are executed only if their base name matches the
*.sh shell file name pattern. Any other files
or directories present within the directory are silently
ignored. In other words, on FreeBSD, you should install the
mysql.server script as
enable automatic startup.
As an alternative to the preceding setup, some operating systems
/etc/init.d/boot.local to start additional
services on startup. To start up MySQL using this method, append
a command like the one following to the appropriate startup
/bin/sh -c 'cd /usr/local/mysql; ./bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &'
For other systems, consult your operating system documentation to see how to install startup scripts.
mysql.server reads options from the
[mysqld] sections of option files. For
backward compatibility, it also reads
[mysql_server] sections, but to be current
you should rename such sections to
You can add options for mysql.server in a
/etc/my.cnf file. A typical
/etc/my.cnf file might look like this:
[mysqld] datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var socket=/var/tmp/mysql.sock port=3306 user=mysql [mysql.server] basedir=/usr/local/mysql
The mysql.server script supports the
following options. If specified, they must
be placed in an option file, not on the command line.
mysql.server supports only
|--basedir||Path to MySQL installation directory|
|--datadir||Path to MySQL data directory|
|--pid-file||File in which server should write its process ID|
|--service-startup-timeout||How long to wait for server startup|
The path to the MySQL installation directory.
The path to the MySQL data directory.
The path name of the file in which the server should write its process ID.
If this option is not given, mysql.server uses a default value of
. The PID file value passed to mysqld_safe overrides any value specified in the
[mysqld_safe]option file group. Because mysql.server reads the
[mysqld]option file group but not the
[mysqld_safe]group, you can ensure that mysqld_safe gets the same value when invoke using mysql.server as when invoked manually by putting the same
pid-filesetting in both the
How long in seconds to wait for confirmation of server startup. If the server does not start within this time, mysql.server exits with an error. The default value is 900. A value of 0 means not to wait at all for startup. Negative values mean to wait forever (no timeout).