This section describes
InnoDB recovery. Topics
To recover an
InnoDB database to the present
from the time at which the physical backup was made, you must
run MySQL server with binary logging enabled, even before taking
the backup. To achieve point-in-time recovery after restoring a
backup, you can apply changes from the binary log that occurred
after the backup was made. See
Section 8.5, “Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log”.
If your database becomes corrupted or disk failure occurs, you must perform the recovery using a backup. In the case of corruption, first find a backup that is not corrupted. After restoring the base backup, do a point-in-time recovery from the binary log files using mysqlbinlog and mysql to restore the changes that occurred after the backup was made.
In some cases of database corruption, it is enough to dump,
drop, and re-create one or a few corrupt tables. You can use the
CHECK TABLE statement to check
whether a table is corrupt, although
TABLE naturally cannot detect every possible kind of
In some cases, apparent database page corruption is actually due
to the operating system corrupting its own file cache, and the
data on disk may be okay. It is best to try restarting the
computer first. Doing so may eliminate errors that appeared to
be database page corruption. If MySQL still has trouble starting
InnoDB consistency problems, see
Section 15.21.2, “Forcing InnoDB Recovery” for steps to start the
instance in recovery mode, which permits you to dump the data.
To recover from a MySQL server crash, the only requirement is to
restart the MySQL server.
automatically checks the logs and performs a roll-forward of the
database to the present.
rolls back uncommitted transactions that were present at the
time of the crash. During recovery, mysqld
displays output similar to this:
InnoDB: Log scan progressed past the checkpoint lsn 369163704 InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 374340608 InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 379583488 InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 384826368 InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 390069248 InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 395312128 InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 400555008 InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 405797888 InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 411040768 InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 414724794 InnoDB: Database was not shutdown normally! InnoDB: Starting crash recovery. InnoDB: 1 transaction(s) which must be rolled back or cleaned up in total 518425 row operations to undo InnoDB: Trx id counter is 1792 InnoDB: Starting an apply batch of log records to the database... InnoDB: Progress in percent: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 InnoDB: Apply batch completed ... InnoDB: Starting in background the rollback of uncommitted transactions InnoDB: Rolling back trx with id 1511, 518425 rows to undo ... InnoDB: Waiting for purge to start InnoDB: 5.7.18 started; log sequence number 414724794 ... ./mysqld: ready for connections.
consists of several steps:
Tablespace discovery is the process that
InnoDBuses to identify tablespaces that require redo log application. See Tablespace Discovery During Crash Recovery.
Redo log application
Redo log application is performed during initialization, before accepting any connections. If all changes are flushed from the buffer pool to the tablespaces (
*.ibdfiles) at the time of the shutdown or crash, redo log application is skipped.
InnoDBalso skips redo log application if redo log files are missing at startup.
Removing redo logs to speed up recovery is not recommended, even if some data loss is acceptable. Removing redo logs should only be considered after a clean shutdown, with
For information about the process that
InnoDBuses to identify tablespaces that require redo log application, see Tablespace Discovery During Crash Recovery.
Incomplete transactions are any transactions that were active at the time of crash or fast shutdown. The time it takes to roll back an incomplete transaction can be three or four times the amount of time a transaction is active before it is interrupted, depending on server load.
You cannot cancel transactions that are being rolled back. In extreme cases, when rolling back transactions is expected to take an exceptionally long time, it may be faster to start
3or greater. See Section 15.21.2, “Forcing InnoDB Recovery”.
Change buffer merge
Applying changes from the change buffer (part of the system tablespace) to leaf pages of secondary indexes, as the index pages are read to the buffer pool.
Deleting delete-marked records that are no longer visible to active transactions.
The steps that follow redo log application do not depend on the redo log (other than for logging the writes) and are performed in parallel with normal processing. Of these, only rollback of incomplete transactions is special to crash recovery. The insert buffer merge and the purge are performed during normal processing.
After redo log application,
to accept connections as early as possible, to reduce downtime.
As part of crash recovery,
InnoDB rolls back
transactions that were not committed or in
PREPARE state when the server crashed. The rollback is
performed by a background thread, executed in parallel with
transactions from new connections. Until the rollback operation
is completed, new connections may encounter locking conflicts
with recovered transactions.
In most situations, even if the MySQL server was killed
unexpectedly in the middle of heavy activity, the recovery
process happens automatically and no action is required of the
DBA. If a hardware failure or severe system error corrupted
InnoDB data, MySQL might refuse to start. In
this case, see Section 15.21.2, “Forcing InnoDB Recovery”.
For information about the binary log and
InnoDB crash recovery, see
Section 6.4.4, “The Binary Log”.
If, during recovery,
InnoDB encounters redo
logs written since the last checkpoint, the redo logs must be
applied to affected tablespaces. The process that identifies
affected tablespaces during recovery is referred to as
Tablespace discovery is performed by scanning redo logs from the
last checkpoint to the end of the log for
MLOG_FILE_NAME records that are written when
a tablespace page is modified. An
MLOG_FILE_NAME record contains the tablespace
space ID and file name.
InnoDB opens the system
tablespace and redo log. If there are redo log records written
since the last checkpoint, affected tablespace files are opened
MLOG_FILE_NAME records are written for all
persistent tablespace types including file-per-table
tablespaces, general tablespaces, the system tablespace, and
undo log tablespaces.
Redo-log-based discovery has the following characteristics:
*.ibdfiles modified since the last checkpoint are accessed.
*.ibdfiles that are not attached to the
InnoDBinstance are ignored when redo logs are applied.
MLOG_FILE_NAMErecords for the system tablespace do not match the server configuration affecting system tablespace data file names, recovery fails with an error before redo logs are applied.
If tablespace files referenced in the scanned portion of the log are missing, startup is refused.
Redo logs for missing tablespace
*.ibdfiles are only disregarded if there is a file-delete redo log record (
MLOG_FILE_DELETE) in the log. For example, a table rename failure could result in a “missing”
*.ibdfile without an
MLOG_FILE_DELETErecord. In this case, you could manually rename the tablespace file and restart crash recovery, or you could restart the server in recovery mode using the
*.ibdfiles are ignored when the server is started in recovery mode.
Redo-log-based discovery, introduced in MySQL 5.7, replaces directory scans that were used in earlier MySQL releases to construct a “space ID-to-tablespace file name” map that was required to apply redo logs.