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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Verifying File Format Compatibility

14.10.2 Verifying File Format Compatibility

InnoDB incorporates several checks to guard against the possible crashes and data corruptions that might occur if you run an old release of the MySQL server on InnoDB data files that use a newer file format. These checks take place when the server is started, and when you first access a table. This section describes these checks, how you can control them, and error and warning conditions that might arise.

Backward Compatibility

You only need to consider backward file format compatibility when using a recent version of InnoDB (MySQL 5.5 and higher with InnoDB) alongside an older version (MySQL 5.1 or earlier, with the built-in InnoDB rather than the InnoDB Plugin). To minimize the chance of compatibility issues, you can standardize on the InnoDB Plugin for all your MySQL 5.1 and earlier database servers.

In general, a newer version of InnoDB may create a table or index that cannot safely be read or written with an older version of InnoDB without risk of crashes, hangs, wrong results or corruptions. InnoDB includes a mechanism to guard against these conditions, and to help preserve compatibility among database files and versions of InnoDB. This mechanism lets you take advantage of some new features of an InnoDB release (such as performance improvements and bug fixes), and still preserve the option of using your database with an old version of InnoDB, by preventing accidental use of new features that create downward-incompatible disk files.

If a version of InnoDB supports a particular file format (whether or not that format is the default), you can query and update any table that requires that format or an earlier format. Only the creation of new tables using new features is limited based on the particular file format enabled. Conversely, if a tablespace contains a table or index that uses a file format that is not supported, it cannot be accessed at all, even for read access.

The only way to downgrade an InnoDB tablespace to the earlier Antelope file format is to copy the data to a new table, in a tablespace that uses the earlier format.

The easiest way to determine the file format of an existing InnoDB tablespace is to examine the properties of the table it contains, using the SHOW TABLE STATUS command or querying the table INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES. If the Row_format of the table is reported as 'Compressed' or 'Dynamic', the tablespace containing the table supports the Barracuda format.

Internal Details

Every InnoDB file-per-table tablespace (represented by a *.ibd file) file is labeled with a file format identifier. The system tablespace (represented by the ibdata files) is tagged with the highest file format in use in a group of InnoDB database files, and this tag is checked when the files are opened.

Creating a compressed table, or a table with ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC, updates the file header of the corresponding file-per-table .ibd file and the table type in the InnoDB data dictionary with the identifier for the Barracuda file format. From that point forward, the table cannot be used with a version of InnoDB that does not support the Barracuda file format. To protect against anomalous behavior, InnoDB performs a compatibility check when the table is opened. (In many cases, the ALTER TABLE statement recreates a table and thus changes its properties. The special case of adding or dropping indexes without rebuilding the table is described in Section 14.13.1, “Online DDL Operations”.)

General tablespaces, which are also represented by a *.ibd file, support both Antelope and Barracuda file formats. For more information about general tablespaces, see Section, “General Tablespaces”.

Definition of ib-file set

To avoid confusion, for the purposes of this discussion we define the term ib-file set to mean the set of operating system files that InnoDB manages as a unit. The ib-file set includes the following files:

  • The system tablespace (one or more ibdata files) that contain internal system information (including internal catalogs and undo information) and may include user data and indexes.

  • Zero or more single-table tablespaces (also called file per table files, named *.ibd files).

  • InnoDB log files; usually two, ib_logfile0 and ib_logfile1. Used for crash recovery and in backups.

An ib-file set does not include the corresponding .frm files that contain metadata about InnoDB tables. The .frm files are created and managed by MySQL, and can sometimes get out of sync with the internal metadata in InnoDB.

Multiple tables, even from more than one database, can be stored in a single ib-file set. (In MySQL, a database is a logical collection of tables, what other systems refer to as a schema or catalog.)