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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Creating InnoDB Tables

14.6.1.1 Creating InnoDB Tables

InnoDB tables are created using the CREATE TABLE statement; for example:

CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT, b CHAR (20), PRIMARY KEY (a)) ENGINE=InnoDB;

The ENGINE=InnoDB clause is not required when InnoDB is defined as the default storage engine, which it is by default. However, the ENGINE clause is useful if the CREATE TABLE statement is to be replayed on a different MySQL Server instance where the default storage engine is not InnoDB or is unknown. You can determine the default storage engine on a MySQL Server instance by issuing the following statement:

mysql> SELECT @@default_storage_engine;
+--------------------------+
| @@default_storage_engine |
+--------------------------+
| InnoDB                   |
+--------------------------+

InnoDB tables are created in file-per-table tablespaces by default. To create an InnoDB table in the InnoDB system tablespace, disable the innodb_file_per_table variable before creating the table. To create an InnoDB table in a general tablespace, use CREATE TABLE ... TABLESPACE syntax. For more information, see Section 14.6.3, “Tablespaces”.

.frm Files

MySQL stores data dictionary information for tables in .frm files in database directories. Unlike other MySQL storage engines, InnoDB also encodes information about the table in its own internal data dictionary inside the system tablespace. When MySQL drops a table or a database, it deletes one or more .frm files as well as the corresponding entries inside the InnoDB data dictionary. You cannot move InnoDB tables between databases simply by moving the .frm files. For information about moving InnoDB tables, see Section 14.6.1.4, “Moving or Copying InnoDB Tables”.

Row Formats

The row format of an InnoDB table determines how its rows are physically stored on disk. InnoDB supports four row formats, each with different storage characteristics. Supported row formats include REDUNDANT, COMPACT, DYNAMIC, and COMPRESSED. The DYNAMIC row format is the default. For information about row format characteristics, see Section 14.11, “InnoDB Row Formats”.

The innodb_default_row_format variable defines the default row format. The row format of a table can also be defined explicitly using the ROW_FORMAT table option in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement. See Defining the Row Format of a Table.

Primary Keys

It is recommended that you define a primary key for each table that you create. When selecting primary key columns, choose columns with the following characteristics:

  • Columns that are referenced by the most important queries.

  • Columns that are never left blank.

  • Columns that never have duplicate values.

  • Columns that rarely if ever change value once inserted.

For example, in a table containing information about people, you would not create a primary key on (firstname, lastname) because more than one person can have the same name, a name column may be left blank, and sometimes people change their names. With so many constraints, often there is not an obvious set of columns to use as a primary key, so you create a new column with a numeric ID to serve as all or part of the primary key. You can declare an auto-increment column so that ascending values are filled in automatically as rows are inserted:

# The value of ID can act like a pointer between related items in different tables.
CREATE TABLE t5 (id INT AUTO_INCREMENT, b CHAR (20), PRIMARY KEY (id));

# The primary key can consist of more than one column. Any autoinc column must come first.
CREATE TABLE t6 (id INT AUTO_INCREMENT, a INT, b CHAR (20), PRIMARY KEY (id,a));

For more information about auto-increment columns, see Section 14.6.1.6, “AUTO_INCREMENT Handling in InnoDB”.

Although a table works correctly without defining a primary key, the primary key is involved with many aspects of performance and is a crucial design aspect for any large or frequently used table. It is recommended that you always specify a primary key in the CREATE TABLE statement. If you create the table, load data, and then run ALTER TABLE to add a primary key later, that operation is much slower than defining the primary key when creating the table. For more information about primary keys, see Section 14.6.2.1, “Clustered and Secondary Indexes”.

Viewing InnoDB Table Properties

To view the properties of an InnoDB table, issue a SHOW TABLE STATUS statement:

mysql> SHOW TABLE STATUS FROM test LIKE 't%' \G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           Name: t1
         Engine: InnoDB
        Version: 10
     Row_format: Dynamic
           Rows: 0
 Avg_row_length: 0
    Data_length: 16384
Max_data_length: 0
   Index_length: 0
      Data_free: 0
 Auto_increment: NULL
    Create_time: 2021-02-18 12:18:28
    Update_time: NULL
     Check_time: NULL
      Collation: utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci
       Checksum: NULL
 Create_options: 
        Comment:

For information about SHOW TABLE STATUS output, see Section 13.7.5.36, “SHOW TABLE STATUS Statement”.

You can also access InnoDB table properties by querying the InnoDB Information Schema system tables:

mysql> SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_SYS_TABLES WHERE NAME='test/t1' \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
     TABLE_ID: 45
         NAME: test/t1
         FLAG: 1
       N_COLS: 5
        SPACE: 35
  FILE_FORMAT: Barracuda
   ROW_FORMAT: Dynamic
ZIP_PAGE_SIZE: 0
   SPACE_TYPE: Single

For more information, see Section 14.16.3, “InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA System Tables”.