Documentation Home
MySQL Replication
Related Documentation Download this Excerpt
PDF (US Ltr) - 1.6Mb
PDF (A4) - 1.6Mb
HTML Download (TGZ) - 390.7Kb
HTML Download (Zip) - 405.0Kb


2.3.2 GTID Life Cycle

The life cycle of a GTID consists of the following steps:

  1. A transaction is executed and committed on the master. This client transaction is assigned a GTID composed of the master's UUID and the smallest nonzero transaction sequence number not yet used on this server. The GTID is written to the master's binary log (immediately preceding the transaction itself in the log). If a client transaction is not written to the binary log (for example, because the transaction was filtered out, or the transaction was read-only), it is not assigned a GTID.

  2. If a GTID was assigned for the transaction, the GTID is persisted atomically at commit time by writing it to the binary log at the beginning of the transaction (as a Gtid_log_event). Whenever the binary log is rotated or the server is shut down, the server writes GTIDs for all transactions that were written into the previous binary log file into the mysql.gtid_executed table.

  3. If a GTID was assigned for the transaction, the GTID is externalized non-atomically (very shortly after the transaction is committed) by adding it to the set of GTIDs in the gtid_executed system variable (@@GLOBAL.gtid_executed). This GTID set contains a representation of the set of all committed GTID transactions, and it is used in replication as a token that represents the server state. With binary logging enabled (as required for the master), the set of GTIDs in the gtid_executed system variable is a complete record of the transactions applied, but the mysql.gtid_executed table is not, because the most recent history is still in the current binary log file.

  4. After the binary log data is transmitted to the slave and stored in the slave's relay log (using established mechanisms for this process, see Chapter 5, Replication Implementation, for details), the slave reads the GTID and sets the value of its gtid_next system variable as this GTID. This tells the slave that the next transaction must be logged using this GTID. It is important to note that the slave sets gtid_next in a session context.

  5. The slave verifies that no thread has yet taken ownership of the GTID in gtid_next in order to process the transaction. By reading and checking the replicated transaction's GTID first, before processing the transaction itself, the slave guarantees not only that no previous transaction having this GTID has been applied on the slave, but also that no other session has already read this GTID but has not yet committed the associated transaction. So if multiple clients attempt to apply the same transaction concurrently, the server resolves this by letting only one of them execute. The gtid_owned system variable (@@GLOBAL.gtid_owned) for the slave shows each GTID that is currently in use and the ID of the thread that owns it. If the GTID has already been used, no error is raised, and the auto-skip function is used to ignore the transaction.

  6. If the GTID has not been used, the slave applies the replicated transaction. Because gtid_next is set to the GTID already assigned by the master, the slave does not attempt to generate a new GTID for this transaction, but instead uses the GTID stored in gtid_next.

  7. If binary logging is enabled on the slave, the GTID is persisted atomically at commit time by writing it to the binary log at the beginning of the transaction (as a Gtid_log_event). Whenever the binary log is rotated or the server is shut down, the server writes GTIDs for all transactions that were written into the previous binary log file into the mysql.gtid_executed table.

  8. If binary logging is disabled on the slave, the GTID is persisted atomically by writing it directly into the mysql.gtid_executed table. MySQL appends a statement to the transaction to insert the GTID into the table. From MySQL 8.0, this operation is atomic for DDL statements as well as for DML statements. In this situation, the mysql.gtid_executed table is a complete record of the transactions applied on the slave.

  9. Very shortly after the replicated transaction is committed on the slave, the GTID is externalized non-atomically by adding it to the set of GTIDs in the gtid_executed system variable (@@GLOBAL.gtid_executed) for the slave. As for the master, this GTID set contains a representation of the set of all committed GTID transactions. If binary logging is disabled on the slave, the mysql.gtid_executed table is also a complete record of the transactions applied on the slave. If binary logging is enabled on the slave, meaning that some GTIDs are only recorded in the binary log, the set of GTIDs in the gtid_executed system variable is the only complete record.

Client transactions that are completely filtered out on the master are not assigned a GTID, therefore they are not added to the set of transactions in the gtid_executed system variable, or added to the mysql.gtid_executed table. However, the GTIDs of replicated transactions that are completely filtered out on the slave are persisted. If binary logging is enabled on the slave, the filtered-out transaction is written to the binary log as a Gtid_log_event followed by an empty transaction containing only BEGIN and COMMIT statements. If binary logging is disabled, the GTID of the filtered-out transaction is written to the mysql.gtid_executed table. Preserving the GTIDs for filtered-out transactions ensures that the mysql.gtid_executed table and the set of GTIDs in the gtid_executed system variable can be compressed. It also ensures that the filtered-out transactions are not retrieved again if the slave reconnects to the master, as explained in Section 2.3.3, “GTID Auto-Positioning”.

On a multithreaded replication slave (with slave_parallel_workers > 0 ), transactions can be applied in parallel, so replicated transactions can commit out of order (unless slave_preserve_commit_order=1 is set). When that happens, the set of GTIDs in the gtid_executed system variable will contain multiple GTID ranges with gaps between them. (On a master or a single-threaded replication slave, there will be monotonically increasing GTIDs without gaps between the numbers.) Gaps on multithreaded replication slaves only occur among the most recently applied transactions, and are filled in as replication progresses. When replication threads are stopped cleanly using the STOP SLAVE statement, ongoing transactions are applied so that the gaps are filled in. In the event of a shutdown such as a server failure or the use of the KILL statement to stop replication threads, the gaps might remain.

What changes are assigned a GTID?

The typical scenario is that the server generates a new GTID for a committed transaction. However, GTIDs can also be assigned to other changes besides transactions, and in some cases a single transaction can be assigned multiple GTIDs.

Every database change (DDL or DML) that is written to the binary log is assigned a GTID. This includes changes that are autocommitted, and changes that are committed using BEGIN and COMMIT or START TRANSACTION statements. A GTID is also assigned to the creation, alteration, or deletion of a database, and of a non-table database object such as a procedure, function, trigger, event, view, user, role, or grant.

Non-transactional updates as well as transactional updates are assigned GTIDs. In addition, for a non-transactional update, if a disk write failure occurs while attempting to write to the binary log cache and a gap is therefore created in the binary log, the resulting incident log event is assigned a GTID.

When a table is automatically dropped by a generated statement in the binary log, a GTID is assigned to the statement. Temporary tables are dropped automatically when a replication slave begins to apply events from a master that has just been started, and when statement-based replication is in use (binlog_format=STATEMENT) and a user session that has open temporary tables disconnects. Tables that use the MEMORY storage engine are deleted automatically the first time they are accessed after the server is started, because rows might have been lost during the shutdown.

When a transaction is not written to the binary log on the server of origin, the server does not assign a GTID to it. This includes transactions that are rolled back and transactions that are executed while binary logging is disabled on the server of origin, either globally (with --skip-log-bin specified in the server's configuration) or for the session (SET @@SESSION.sql_log_bin = 0). This also includes no-op transactions when row-based replication is in use (binlog_format=ROW).

XA transactions are assigned separate GTIDs for the XA PREPARE phase of the transaction and the XA COMMIT or XA ROLLBACK phase of the transaction. XA transactions are persistently prepared so that users can commit them or roll them back in the case of a failure (which in a replication topology might include a failover to another server). The two parts of the transaction are therefore replicated separately, so they must have their own GTIDs, even though a non-XA transaction that is rolled back would not have a GTID.

In the following special cases, a single statement can generate multiple transactions, and therefore be assigned multiple GTIDs:

  • A stored procedure is invoked that commits multiple transactions. One GTID is generated for each transaction that the procedure commits.

  • A multi-table DROP TABLE statement drops tables of different types. Multiple GTIDs can be generated if any of the tables use storage engines that do not support atomic DDL, or if any of the tables are temporary tables.

  • A CREATE TABLE ... SELECT statement is issued when row-based replication is in use (binlog_format=ROW). One GTID is generated for the CREATE TABLE action and one GTID is generated for the row-insert actions.

The gtid_next System Variable

By default, for new transactions committed in user sessions, the server automatically generates and assigns a new GTID. When the transaction is applied on a replication slave, the GTID from the server of origin is preserved. You can change this behavior by setting the session value of the gtid_next system variable:

  • When gtid_next is set to AUTOMATIC, which is the default, and a transaction is committed and written to the binary log, the server automatically generates and assigns a new GTID. If a transaction is rolled back or not written to the binary log for another reason, the server does not generate and assign a GTID.

  • If you set gtid_next to a valid GTID (consisting of a UUID and a transaction sequence number, separated by a colon), the server assigns that GTID to your transaction. This GTID is assigned and added to gtid_executed even when the transaction is not written to the binary log, or when the transaction is empty.

Note that after you set gtid_next to a specific GTID, and the transaction has been committed or rolled back, an explicit SET @@SESSION.gtid_next statement must be issued before any other statement. You can use this to set the GTID value back to AUTOMATIC if you do not want to assign any more GTIDs explicitly.

When replication applier threads apply replicated transactions, they use this technique, setting @@SESSION.gtid_next explicitly to the GTID of the replicated transaction as assigned on the server of origin. This means the GTID from the server of origin is retained, rather than a new GTID being generated and assigned by the replication slave. It also means the GTID is added to gtid_executed on the replication slave even when binary logging or slave update logging is disabled on the slave, or when the transaction is a no-op or is filtered out on the slave.

It is possible for a client to simulate a replicated transaction by setting @@SESSION.gtid_next to a specific GTID before executing the transaction. This technique is used by mysqlbinlog to generate a dump of the binary log that the client can replay to preserve GTIDs. A simulated replicated transaction committed through a client is completely equivalent to a replicated transaction committed through a replication applier thread, and they cannot be distinguished after the fact.

The gtid_purged System Variable

The set of GTIDs in the gtid_purged system variable (@@GLOBAL.gtid_purged) contains the GTIDs of all the transactions that have been committed on the server, but do not exist in any binary log file on the server. gtid_purged is a subset of gtid_executed. The following categories of GTIDs are in gtid_purged:

  • GTIDs of replicated transactions that were committed with binary logging disabled on the slave.

  • GTIDs of transactions that were written to a binary log file that has now been purged.

  • GTIDs that were added explicitly to the set by the statement SET @@GLOBAL.gtid_purged.

You can change the value of gtid_purged in order to record on the server that the transactions in a certain GTID set have been applied, although they do not exist in any binary log on the server. When you add GTIDs to gtid_purged, they are also added to gtid_executed. An example use case for this action is when you are restoring a backup of one or more databases on a server, but you do not have the relevant binary logs containing the transactions on the server. Before MySQL 8.0, you could only change the value of gtid_purged when gtid_executed (and therefore gtid_purged) was empty. From MySQL 8.0, this restriction does not apply, and you can also choose whether to replace the whole GTID set in gtid_purged with a specified GTID set, or to add a specified GTID set to the GTIDs already in gtid_purged. For details of how to do this, see the description for gtid_purged.

The sets of GTIDs in the gtid_executed and gtid_purged system variables are initialized when the server starts. Every binary log file begins with the event Previous_gtids_log_event, which contains the set of GTIDs in all previous binary log files (composed from the GTIDs in the preceding file's Previous_gtids_log_event, and the GTIDs of every Gtid_log_event in the preceding file itself). The contents of Previous_gtids_log_event in the oldest and most recent binary log files are used to compute the gtid_executed and gtid_purged sets at server startup:

  • gtid_executed is computed as the union of the GTIDs in Previous_gtids_log_event in the most recent binary log file, the GTIDs of transactions in that binary log file, and the GTIDs stored in the mysql.gtid_executed table. This GTID set contains all the GTIDs that have been used (or added explicitly to gtid_purged) on the server, whether or not they are currently in a binary log file on the server. It does not include the GTIDs for transactions that are currently being processed on the server (@@GLOBAL.gtid_owned).

  • gtid_purged is computed by first adding the GTIDs in Previous_gtids_log_event in the most recent binary log file and the GTIDs of transactions in that binary log file. This step gives the set of GTIDs that are currently, or were once, recorded in a binary log on the server (gtids_in_binlog). Next, the GTIDs in Previous_gtids_log_event in the oldest binary log file are subtracted from gtids_in_binlog. This step gives the set of GTIDs that are currently recorded in a binary log on the server (gtids_in_binlog_not_purged). Finally, gtids_in_binlog_not_purged is subtracted from gtid_executed. The result is the set of GTIDs that have been used on the server, but are not currently recorded in a binary log file on the server, and this result is used to initialize gtid_purged.

If binary logs from MySQL 5.7.7 or older are involved in these computations, it is possible for incorrect GTID sets to be computed for gtid_executed and gtid_purged, and they remain incorrect even if the server is later restarted. For details, see the description for the binlog_gtid_simple_recovery system variable, which controls how the binary logs are iterated to compute the GTID sets. If one of the situations described there applies on a server, set binlog_gtid_simple_recovery=FALSE in the server's configuration file before starting it. That setting makes the server iterate all the binary log files (not just the newest and oldest) to find where GTID events start to appear. This process could take a long time if the server has a large number of binary log files without GTID events.

Issuing RESET MASTER causes the value of gtid_purged to be reset to an empty string, and causes the global value (but not the session value) of gtid_executed to be reset to an empty string.