If the sources in the multi-source replication topology have existing data, it can save time to provision the replica with the relevant data before starting replication. In a multi-source replication topology, cloning or copying of the data directory cannot be used to provision the replica with data from all of the sources, and you might also want to replicate only specific databases from each source. The best strategy for provisioning such a replica is therefore to use mysqldump to create an appropriate dump file on each source, then use the mysql client to import the dump file on the replica.
If you are using GTID-based replication, you need to pay attention
SET @@GLOBAL.gtid_purged statement that
mysqldump places in the dump output. This
statement transfers the GTIDs for the transactions executed on the
source to the replica, and the replica requires this information.
However, for any case more complex than provisioning one new,
empty replica from one source, you need to check what effect the
statement has in the version of MySQL used by the replica, and
handle the statement accordingly. The following guidance
summarizes suitable actions, but for more details, see the
The behavior of the
statement written by mysqldump is different in
releases from MySQL 8.0 compared to MySQL 5.6 and 5.7. In MySQL
5.6 and 5.7, the statement replaces the value of
gtid_purged on the replica, and
also in those releases that value can only be changed when the
replica's record of transactions with GTIDs (the
gtid_executed set) is empty. In a
multi-source replication topology, you must therefore remove the
SET @@GLOBAL.gtid_purged statement from the
dump output before replaying the dump files, because you cannot
apply a second or subsequent dump file including this statement.
Also note that for MySQL 5.6 and 5.7, this limitation means all
the dump files from the sources must be applied in a single
operation on a replica with an empty
gtid_executed set. You can clear
a replica's GTID execution history by issuing
RESET MASTER on the replica, but if
you have other, wanted transactions with GTIDs on the replica,
choose an alternative method of provisioning from those described
in Section 2.3.5, “Using GTIDs for Failover and Scaleout”.
From MySQL 8.0, the
statement adds the GTID set from the dump file to the existing
gtid_purged set on the replica.
The statement can therefore potentially be left in the dump output
when you replay the dump files on the replica, and the dump files
can be replayed at different times. However, it is important to
note that the value that is included by
mysqldump for the
@@GLOBAL.gtid_purged statement includes the GTIDs of all
transactions in the
set on the source, even those that changed suppressed parts of the
database, or other databases on the server that were not included
in a partial dump. If you replay a second or subsequent dump file
on the replica that contains any of the same GTIDs (for example,
another partial dump from the same source, or a dump from another
source that has overlapping transactions), any
@@GLOBAL.gtid_purged statement in the second dump file
fails, and must therefore be removed from the dump output.
For sources from MySQL 8.0.17, as an alternative to removing the
SET @@GLOBAL.gtid_purged statement, you may set
--set-gtid-purged option to
COMMENTED to include the statement but
commented out, so that it is not actioned when you load the dump
file. If you are provisioning the replica with two partial dumps
from the same source, and the GTID set in the second dump is the
same as the first (so no new transactions have been executed on
the source in between the dumps), you can set
--set-gtid-purged option to
OFF when you output the second dump file, to
omit the statement.
In the following provisioning example, we assume that the
SET @@GLOBAL.gtid_purged statement cannot be
left in the dump output, and must be removed from the files and
handled manually. We also assume that there are no wanted
transactions with GTIDs on the replica before provisioning starts.
To create dump files for a database named
source1and a database named
source2, run mysqldump for
mysqldump -u<user> -p<password> --single-transaction --triggers --routines --set-gtid-purged=ON --databases db1 > dumpM1.sql
Then run mysqldump for
mysqldump -u<user> -p<password> --single-transaction --triggers --routines --set-gtid-purged=ON --databases db2 > dumpM2.sql
gtid_purgedvalue that mysqldump added to each of the dump files. For example, for dump files created on MySQL 5.6 or 5.7, you can extract the value like this:
cat dumpM1.sql | grep GTID_PURGED | cut -f2 -d'=' | cut -f2 -d$'\'' cat dumpM2.sql | grep GTID_PURGED | cut -f2 -d'=' | cut -f2 -d$'\''
From MySQL 8.0, where the format has changed, you can extract the value like this:
cat dumpM1.sql | grep GTID_PURGED | perl -p0 -e 's#/\*.*?\*/##sg' | cut -f2 -d'=' | cut -f2 -d$'\'' cat dumpM2.sql | grep GTID_PURGED | perl -p0 -e 's#/\*.*?\*/##sg' | cut -f2 -d'=' | cut -f2 -d$'\''
The result in each case should be a GTID set, for example:
source1: 2174B383-5441-11E8-B90A-C80AA9429562:1-1029 source2: 224DA167-0C0C-11E8-8442-00059A3C7B00:1-2695
Remove the line from each dump file that contains the
SET @@GLOBAL.gtid_purgedstatement. For example:
sed '/GTID_PURGED/d' dumpM1.sql > dumpM1_nopurge.sql sed '/GTID_PURGED/d' dumpM2.sql > dumpM2_nopurge.sql
Use the mysql client to import each edited dump file into the replica. For example:
mysql -u<user> -p<password> < dumpM1_nopurge.sql mysql -u<user> -p<password> < dumpM2_nopurge.sql
On the replica, issue
RESET MASTERto clear the GTID execution history (assuming, as explained above, that all the dump files have been imported and that there are no wanted transactions with GTIDs on the replica). Then issue a
SET @@GLOBAL.gtid_purgedstatement to set the
gtid_purgedvalue to the union of all the GTID sets from all the dump files, as you recorded in Step 2. For example:
mysql> RESET MASTER; mysql> SET @@GLOBAL.gtid_purged = "2174B383-5441-11E8-B90A-C80AA9429562:1-1029, 224DA167-0C0C-11E8-8442-00059A3C7B00:1-2695";
If there are, or might be, overlapping transactions between the GTID sets in the dump files, you can use the stored functions described in Section 2.3.8, “Stored Function Examples to Manipulate GTIDs” to check this beforehand and to calculate the union of all the GTID sets.