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Connectors and APIs Manual  /  ...  /  Advanced Load-balancing and Failover Configuration

3.8.5 Advanced Load-balancing and Failover Configuration

Connector/J provides a useful load-balancing implementation for MySQL Cluster or multi-source deployments, as explained in Section 3.8.3, “Configuring Load Balancing with Connector/J” and Support for Multiple-Source Replication Topographies. This same implementation is used for balancing load between read-only replicas for replication-aware connections.

When trying to balance workload between multiple servers, the driver has to determine when it is safe to swap servers, doing so in the middle of a transaction, for example, could cause problems. It is important not to lose state information. For this reason, Connector/J will only try to pick a new server when one of the following happens:

  1. At transaction boundaries (transactions are explicitly committed or rolled back).

  2. A communication exception (SQL State starting with "08") is encountered.

  3. When a SQLException matches conditions defined by user, using the extension points defined by the loadBalanceSQLStateFailover, loadBalanceSQLExceptionSubclassFailover or loadBalanceExceptionChecker properties.

The third condition revolves around three properties, which allow you to control which SQLExceptions trigger failover:

  • loadBalanceExceptionChecker - The loadBalanceExceptionChecker property is really the key. This takes a fully-qualified class name which implements the new com.mysql.cj.jdbc.ha.LoadBalanceExceptionChecker interface. This interface is very simple, and you only need to implement the following method:

    public boolean shouldExceptionTriggerFailover(SQLException ex)

    A SQLException is passed in, and a boolean returned. A value of true triggers a failover, false does not.

    You can use this to implement your own custom logic. An example where this might be useful is when dealing with transient errors when using MySQL Cluster, where certain buffers may become overloaded. The following code snippet illustrates this:

    public class NdbLoadBalanceExceptionChecker
     extends StandardLoadBalanceExceptionChecker {
     public boolean shouldExceptionTriggerFailover(SQLException ex) {
      return super.shouldExceptionTriggerFailover(ex)
        ||  checkNdbException(ex);
     private boolean checkNdbException(SQLException ex){
     // Have to parse the message since most NDB errors
     // are mapped to the same DEMC.
      return (ex.getMessage().startsWith("Lock wait timeout exceeded") ||
      (ex.getMessage().startsWith("Got temporary error")
      && ex.getMessage().endsWith("from NDB")));

    The code above extends com.mysql.cj.jdbc.ha.StandardLoadBalanceExceptionChecker, which is the default implementation. There are a few convenient shortcuts built into this, for those who want to have some level of control using properties, without writing Java code. This default implementation uses the two remaining properties: loadBalanceSQLStateFailover and loadBalanceSQLExceptionSubclassFailover.

  • loadBalanceSQLStateFailover - allows you to define a comma-delimited list of SQLState code prefixes, against which a SQLException is compared. If the prefix matches, failover is triggered. So, for example, the following would trigger a failover if a given SQLException starts with "00", or is "12345":

  • loadBalanceSQLExceptionSubclassFailover - can be used in conjunction with loadBalanceSQLStateFailover or on its own. If you want certain subclasses of SQLException to trigger failover, simply provide a comma-delimited list of fully-qualified class or interface names to check against. For example, if you want all SQLTransientConnectionExceptions to trigger failover, you would specify:


While the three failover conditions enumerated earlier suit most situations, if autocommit is enabled, Connector/J never re-balances, and continues using the same physical connection. This can be problematic, particularly when load-balancing is being used to distribute read-only load across multiple replicas. However, Connector/J can be configured to re-balance after a certain number of statements are executed, when autocommit is enabled. This functionality is dependent upon the following properties:

  • loadBalanceAutoCommitStatementThreshold – defines the number of matching statements which will trigger the driver to potentially swap physical server connections. The default value, 0, retains the behavior that connections with autocommit enabled are never balanced.

  • loadBalanceAutoCommitStatementRegex – the regular expression against which statements must match. The default value, blank, matches all statements. So, for example, using the following properties will cause Connector/J to re-balance after every third statement that contains the string test:


    loadBalanceAutoCommitStatementRegex can prove useful in a number of situations. Your application may use temporary tables, server-side session state variables, or connection state, where letting the driver arbitrarily swap physical connections before processing is complete could cause data loss or other problems. This allows you to identify a trigger statement that is only executed when it is safe to swap physical connections.

Configuring Load Balancing and Failover with DNS SRV

See Section 3.5.14, “Support for DNS SRV Records” for details.