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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  Language Structure  /  Keywords and Reserved Words

9.3 Keywords and Reserved Words

Keywords are words that have significance in SQL. Certain keywords, such as SELECT, DELETE, or BIGINT, are reserved and require special treatment for use as identifiers such as table and column names. This may also be true for the names of built-in functions.

Nonreserved keywords are permitted as identifiers without quoting. Reserved words are permitted as identifiers if you quote them as described in Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”:

mysql> CREATE TABLE interval (begin INT, end INT);
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax ...
near 'interval (begin INT, end INT)'

BEGIN and END are keywords but not reserved, so their use as identifiers does not require quoting. INTERVAL is a reserved keyword and must be quoted to be used as an identifier:

mysql> CREATE TABLE `interval` (begin INT, end INT);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

Exception: A word that follows a period in a qualified name must be an identifier, so it need not be quoted even if it is reserved:

mysql> CREATE TABLE mydb.interval (begin INT, end INT);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

Names of built-in functions are permitted as identifiers but may require care to be used as such. For example, COUNT is acceptable as a column name. However, by default, no whitespace is permitted in function invocations between the function name and the following ( character. This requirement enables the parser to distinguish whether the name is used in a function call or in nonfunction context. For further details on recognition of function names, see Section 9.2.4, “Function Name Parsing and Resolution”.

The INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEYWORDS table lists the words considered keywords by MySQL and indicates whether they are reserved. See Section 24.11, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA KEYWORDS Table”.

MySQL 8.0 Keywords and Reserved Words

The following list shows the keywords and reserved words in MySQL 8.0, along with changes to individual words from version to version. Reserved keywords are marked with (R). In addition, _FILENAME is reserved.

At some point, you might upgrade to a higher version, so it is a good idea to have a look at future reserved words, too. You can find these in the manuals that cover higher versions of MySQL. Most of the reserved words in the list are forbidden by standard SQL as column or table names (for example, GROUP). A few are reserved because MySQL needs them and uses a yacc parser.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

  • ACCESSIBLE (R)

  • ACCOUNT

  • ACTION

  • ADD (R)

  • ADMIN became nonreserved in 8.0.12

  • AFTER

  • AGAINST

  • AGGREGATE

  • ALGORITHM

  • ALL (R)

  • ALTER (R)

  • ALWAYS

  • ANALYSE removed in 8.0.1

  • ANALYZE (R)

  • AND (R)

  • ANY

  • AS (R)

  • ASC (R)

  • ASCII

  • ASENSITIVE (R)

  • AT

  • AUTOEXTEND_SIZE

  • AUTO_INCREMENT

  • AVG

  • AVG_ROW_LENGTH

B

  • BACKUP

  • BEFORE (R)

  • BEGIN

  • BETWEEN (R)

  • BIGINT (R)

  • BINARY (R)

  • BINLOG

  • BIT

  • BLOB (R)

  • BLOCK

  • BOOL

  • BOOLEAN

  • BOTH (R)

  • BTREE

  • BUCKETS added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • BY (R)

  • BYTE

C

  • CACHE

  • CALL (R)

  • CASCADE (R)

  • CASCADED

  • CASE (R)

  • CATALOG_NAME

  • CHAIN

  • CHANGE (R)

  • CHANGED

  • CHANNEL

  • CHAR (R)

  • CHARACTER (R)

  • CHARSET

  • CHECK (R)

  • CHECKSUM

  • CIPHER

  • CLASS_ORIGIN

  • CLIENT

  • CLONE added in 8.0.3 (nonreserved)

  • CLOSE

  • COALESCE

  • CODE

  • COLLATE (R)

  • COLLATION

  • COLUMN (R)

  • COLUMNS

  • COLUMN_FORMAT

  • COLUMN_NAME

  • COMMENT

  • COMMIT

  • COMMITTED

  • COMPACT

  • COMPLETION

  • COMPONENT

  • COMPRESSED

  • COMPRESSION

  • CONCURRENT

  • CONDITION (R)

  • CONNECTION

  • CONSISTENT

  • CONSTRAINT (R)

  • CONSTRAINT_CATALOG

  • CONSTRAINT_NAME

  • CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA

  • CONTAINS

  • CONTEXT

  • CONTINUE (R)

  • CONVERT (R)

  • CPU

  • CREATE (R)

  • CROSS (R)

  • CUBE (R) became reserved in 8.0.1

  • CUME_DIST (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • CURRENT

  • CURRENT_DATE (R)

  • CURRENT_TIME (R)

  • CURRENT_TIMESTAMP (R)

  • CURRENT_USER (R)

  • CURSOR (R)

  • CURSOR_NAME

D

  • DATA

  • DATABASE (R)

  • DATABASES (R)

  • DATAFILE

  • DATE

  • DATETIME

  • DAY

  • DAY_HOUR (R)

  • DAY_MICROSECOND (R)

  • DAY_MINUTE (R)

  • DAY_SECOND (R)

  • DEALLOCATE

  • DEC (R)

  • DECIMAL (R)

  • DECLARE (R)

  • DEFAULT (R)

  • DEFAULT_AUTH

  • DEFINER

  • DEFINITION added in 8.0.11 (nonreserved)

  • DELAYED (R)

  • DELAY_KEY_WRITE

  • DELETE (R)

  • DENSE_RANK (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • DESC (R)

  • DESCRIBE (R)

  • DESCRIPTION added in 8.0.11 (nonreserved)

  • DES_KEY_FILE removed in 8.0.3

  • DETERMINISTIC (R)

  • DIAGNOSTICS

  • DIRECTORY

  • DISABLE

  • DISCARD

  • DISK

  • DISTINCT (R)

  • DISTINCTROW (R)

  • DIV (R)

  • DO

  • DOUBLE (R)

  • DROP (R)

  • DUAL (R)

  • DUMPFILE

  • DUPLICATE

  • DYNAMIC

E

  • EACH (R)

  • ELSE (R)

  • ELSEIF (R)

  • EMPTY (R) added in 8.0.4 (reserved)

  • ENABLE

  • ENCLOSED (R)

  • ENCRYPTION

  • END

  • ENDS

  • ENGINE

  • ENGINES

  • ENUM

  • ERROR

  • ERRORS

  • ESCAPE

  • ESCAPED (R)

  • EVENT

  • EVENTS

  • EVERY

  • EXCEPT (R)

  • EXCHANGE

  • EXCLUDE added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • EXECUTE

  • EXISTS (R)

  • EXIT (R)

  • EXPANSION

  • EXPIRE

  • EXPLAIN (R)

  • EXPORT

  • EXTENDED

  • EXTENT_SIZE

F

  • FALSE (R)

  • FAST

  • FAULTS

  • FETCH (R)

  • FIELDS

  • FILE

  • FILE_BLOCK_SIZE

  • FILTER

  • FIRST

  • FIRST_VALUE (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • FIXED

  • FLOAT (R)

  • FLOAT4 (R)

  • FLOAT8 (R)

  • FLUSH

  • FOLLOWING added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • FOLLOWS

  • FOR (R)

  • FORCE (R)

  • FOREIGN (R)

  • FORMAT

  • FOUND

  • FROM (R)

  • FULL

  • FULLTEXT (R)

  • FUNCTION (R) became reserved in 8.0.1

G

  • GENERAL

  • GENERATED (R)

  • GEOMCOLLECTION added in 8.0.11 (nonreserved)

  • GEOMETRY

  • GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

  • GET (R)

  • GET_FORMAT

  • GET_MASTER_PUBLIC_KEY added in 8.0.11 (nonreserved)

  • GLOBAL

  • GRANT (R)

  • GRANTS

  • GROUP (R)

  • GROUPING (R) added in 8.0.1 (reserved)

  • GROUPS (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • GROUP_REPLICATION

H

  • HANDLER

  • HASH

  • HAVING (R)

  • HELP

  • HIGH_PRIORITY (R)

  • HISTOGRAM added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • HISTORY added in 8.0.3 (nonreserved)

  • HOST

  • HOSTS

  • HOUR

  • HOUR_MICROSECOND (R)

  • HOUR_MINUTE (R)

  • HOUR_SECOND (R)

I

  • IDENTIFIED

  • IF (R)

  • IGNORE (R)

  • IGNORE_SERVER_IDS

  • IMPORT

  • IN (R)

  • INDEX (R)

  • INDEXES

  • INFILE (R)

  • INITIAL_SIZE

  • INNER (R)

  • INOUT (R)

  • INSENSITIVE (R)

  • INSERT (R)

  • INSERT_METHOD

  • INSTALL

  • INSTANCE

  • INT (R)

  • INT1 (R)

  • INT2 (R)

  • INT3 (R)

  • INT4 (R)

  • INT8 (R)

  • INTEGER (R)

  • INTERVAL (R)

  • INTO (R)

  • INVISIBLE

  • INVOKER

  • IO

  • IO_AFTER_GTIDS (R)

  • IO_BEFORE_GTIDS (R)

  • IO_THREAD

  • IPC

  • IS (R)

  • ISOLATION

  • ISSUER

  • ITERATE (R)

J

  • JOIN (R)

  • JSON

  • JSON_TABLE (R) added in 8.0.4 (reserved)

K

  • KEY (R)

  • KEYS (R)

  • KEY_BLOCK_SIZE

  • KILL (R)

L

  • LAG (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • LANGUAGE

  • LAST

  • LAST_VALUE (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • LEAD (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • LEADING (R)

  • LEAVE (R)

  • LEAVES

  • LEFT (R)

  • LESS

  • LEVEL

  • LIKE (R)

  • LIMIT (R)

  • LINEAR (R)

  • LINES (R)

  • LINESTRING

  • LIST

  • LOAD (R)

  • LOCAL

  • LOCALTIME (R)

  • LOCALTIMESTAMP (R)

  • LOCK (R)

  • LOCKED added in 8.0.1 (nonreserved)

  • LOCKS

  • LOGFILE

  • LOGS

  • LONG (R)

  • LONGBLOB (R)

  • LONGTEXT (R)

  • LOOP (R)

  • LOW_PRIORITY (R)

M

  • MASTER

  • MASTER_AUTO_POSITION

  • MASTER_BIND (R)

  • MASTER_CONNECT_RETRY

  • MASTER_DELAY

  • MASTER_HEARTBEAT_PERIOD

  • MASTER_HOST

  • MASTER_LOG_FILE

  • MASTER_LOG_POS

  • MASTER_PASSWORD

  • MASTER_PORT

  • MASTER_PUBLIC_KEY_PATH added in 8.0.11 (nonreserved)

  • MASTER_RETRY_COUNT

  • MASTER_SERVER_ID

  • MASTER_SSL

  • MASTER_SSL_CA

  • MASTER_SSL_CAPATH

  • MASTER_SSL_CERT

  • MASTER_SSL_CIPHER

  • MASTER_SSL_CRL

  • MASTER_SSL_CRLPATH

  • MASTER_SSL_KEY

  • MASTER_SSL_VERIFY_SERVER_CERT (R)

  • MASTER_TLS_VERSION

  • MASTER_USER

  • MATCH (R)

  • MAXVALUE (R)

  • MAX_CONNECTIONS_PER_HOUR

  • MAX_QUERIES_PER_HOUR

  • MAX_ROWS

  • MAX_SIZE

  • MAX_UPDATES_PER_HOUR

  • MAX_USER_CONNECTIONS

  • MEDIUM

  • MEDIUMBLOB (R)

  • MEDIUMINT (R)

  • MEDIUMTEXT (R)

  • MEMORY

  • MERGE

  • MESSAGE_TEXT

  • MICROSECOND

  • MIDDLEINT (R)

  • MIGRATE

  • MINUTE

  • MINUTE_MICROSECOND (R)

  • MINUTE_SECOND (R)

  • MIN_ROWS

  • MOD (R)

  • MODE

  • MODIFIES (R)

  • MODIFY

  • MONTH

  • MULTILINESTRING

  • MULTIPOINT

  • MULTIPOLYGON

  • MUTEX

  • MYSQL_ERRNO

N

  • NAME

  • NAMES

  • NATIONAL

  • NATURAL (R)

  • NCHAR

  • NDB

  • NDBCLUSTER

  • NESTED added in 8.0.4 (nonreserved)

  • NEVER

  • NEW

  • NEXT

  • NO

  • NODEGROUP

  • NONE

  • NOT (R)

  • NOWAIT added in 8.0.1 (nonreserved)

  • NO_WAIT

  • NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG (R)

  • NTH_VALUE (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • NTILE (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • NULL (R)

  • NULLS added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • NUMBER

  • NUMERIC (R)

  • NVARCHAR

O

  • OF (R) added in 8.0.1 (reserved)

  • OFFSET

  • ON (R)

  • ONE

  • ONLY

  • OPEN

  • OPTIMIZE (R)

  • OPTIMIZER_COSTS (R)

  • OPTION (R)

  • OPTIONALLY (R)

  • OPTIONS

  • OR (R)

  • ORDER (R)

  • ORDINALITY added in 8.0.4 (nonreserved)

  • ORGANIZATION added in 8.0.11 (nonreserved)

  • OTHERS added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • OUT (R)

  • OUTER (R)

  • OUTFILE (R)

  • OVER (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • OWNER

P

  • PACK_KEYS

  • PAGE

  • PARSER

  • PARTIAL

  • PARTITION (R)

  • PARTITIONING

  • PARTITIONS

  • PASSWORD

  • PATH added in 8.0.4 (nonreserved)

  • PERCENT_RANK (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • PERSIST (R)

  • PERSIST_ONLY (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • PHASE

  • PLUGIN

  • PLUGINS

  • PLUGIN_DIR

  • POINT

  • POLYGON

  • PORT

  • PRECEDES

  • PRECEDING added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • PRECISION (R)

  • PREPARE

  • PRESERVE

  • PREV

  • PRIMARY (R)

  • PRIVILEGES

  • PROCEDURE (R)

  • PROCESS added in 8.0.11 (nonreserved)

  • PROCESSLIST

  • PROFILE

  • PROFILES

  • PROXY

  • PURGE (R)

Q

  • QUARTER

  • QUERY

  • QUICK

R

  • RANGE (R)

  • RANK (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • READ (R)

  • READS (R)

  • READ_ONLY

  • READ_WRITE (R)

  • REAL (R)

  • REBUILD

  • RECOVER

  • RECURSIVE (R) added in 8.0.1 (reserved)

  • REDOFILE removed in 8.0.3

  • REDO_BUFFER_SIZE

  • REDUNDANT

  • REFERENCE added in 8.0.11 (nonreserved)

  • REFERENCES (R)

  • REGEXP (R)

  • RELAY

  • RELAYLOG

  • RELAY_LOG_FILE

  • RELAY_LOG_POS

  • RELAY_THREAD

  • RELEASE (R)

  • RELOAD

  • REMOTE added in 8.0.3 (nonreserved)

  • REMOVE

  • RENAME (R)

  • REORGANIZE

  • REPAIR

  • REPEAT (R)

  • REPEATABLE

  • REPLACE (R)

  • REPLICATE_DO_DB

  • REPLICATE_DO_TABLE

  • REPLICATE_IGNORE_DB

  • REPLICATE_IGNORE_TABLE

  • REPLICATE_REWRITE_DB

  • REPLICATE_WILD_DO_TABLE

  • REPLICATE_WILD_IGNORE_TABLE

  • REPLICATION

  • REQUIRE (R)

  • RESET

  • RESIGNAL (R)

  • RESOURCE added in 8.0.3 (nonreserved)

  • RESPECT added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • RESTART added in 8.0.11 (nonreserved)

  • RESTORE

  • RESTRICT (R)

  • RESUME

  • RETURN (R)

  • RETURNED_SQLSTATE

  • RETURNS

  • REUSE added in 8.0.3 (nonreserved)

  • REVERSE

  • REVOKE (R)

  • RIGHT (R)

  • RLIKE (R)

  • ROLE became nonreserved in 8.0.1

  • ROLLBACK

  • ROLLUP

  • ROTATE

  • ROUTINE

  • ROW (R) became reserved in 8.0.2

  • ROWS (R) became reserved in 8.0.2

  • ROW_COUNT

  • ROW_FORMAT

  • ROW_NUMBER (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • RTREE

S

  • SAVEPOINT

  • SCHEDULE

  • SCHEMA (R)

  • SCHEMAS (R)

  • SCHEMA_NAME

  • SECOND

  • SECOND_MICROSECOND (R)

  • SECURITY

  • SELECT (R)

  • SENSITIVE (R)

  • SEPARATOR (R)

  • SERIAL

  • SERIALIZABLE

  • SERVER

  • SESSION

  • SET (R)

  • SHARE

  • SHOW (R)

  • SHUTDOWN

  • SIGNAL (R)

  • SIGNED

  • SIMPLE

  • SKIP added in 8.0.1 (nonreserved)

  • SLAVE

  • SLOW

  • SMALLINT (R)

  • SNAPSHOT

  • SOCKET

  • SOME

  • SONAME

  • SOUNDS

  • SOURCE

  • SPATIAL (R)

  • SPECIFIC (R)

  • SQL (R)

  • SQLEXCEPTION (R)

  • SQLSTATE (R)

  • SQLWARNING (R)

  • SQL_AFTER_GTIDS

  • SQL_AFTER_MTS_GAPS

  • SQL_BEFORE_GTIDS

  • SQL_BIG_RESULT (R)

  • SQL_BUFFER_RESULT

  • SQL_CACHE removed in 8.0.3

  • SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS (R)

  • SQL_NO_CACHE

  • SQL_SMALL_RESULT (R)

  • SQL_THREAD

  • SQL_TSI_DAY

  • SQL_TSI_HOUR

  • SQL_TSI_MINUTE

  • SQL_TSI_MONTH

  • SQL_TSI_QUARTER

  • SQL_TSI_SECOND

  • SQL_TSI_WEEK

  • SQL_TSI_YEAR

  • SRID added in 8.0.3 (nonreserved)

  • SSL (R)

  • STACKED

  • START

  • STARTING (R)

  • STARTS

  • STATS_AUTO_RECALC

  • STATS_PERSISTENT

  • STATS_SAMPLE_PAGES

  • STATUS

  • STOP

  • STORAGE

  • STORED (R)

  • STRAIGHT_JOIN (R)

  • STRING

  • SUBCLASS_ORIGIN

  • SUBJECT

  • SUBPARTITION

  • SUBPARTITIONS

  • SUPER

  • SUSPEND

  • SWAPS

  • SWITCHES

  • SYSTEM (R) added in 8.0.3 (reserved)

T

  • TABLE (R)

  • TABLES

  • TABLESPACE

  • TABLE_CHECKSUM

  • TABLE_NAME

  • TEMPORARY

  • TEMPTABLE

  • TERMINATED (R)

  • TEXT

  • THAN

  • THEN (R)

  • THREAD_PRIORITY added in 8.0.3 (nonreserved)

  • TIES added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • TIME

  • TIMESTAMP

  • TIMESTAMPADD

  • TIMESTAMPDIFF

  • TINYBLOB (R)

  • TINYINT (R)

  • TINYTEXT (R)

  • TO (R)

  • TRAILING (R)

  • TRANSACTION

  • TRIGGER (R)

  • TRIGGERS

  • TRUE (R)

  • TRUNCATE

  • TYPE

  • TYPES

U

  • UNBOUNDED added in 8.0.2 (nonreserved)

  • UNCOMMITTED

  • UNDEFINED

  • UNDO (R)

  • UNDOFILE

  • UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE

  • UNICODE

  • UNINSTALL

  • UNION (R)

  • UNIQUE (R)

  • UNKNOWN

  • UNLOCK (R)

  • UNSIGNED (R)

  • UNTIL

  • UPDATE (R)

  • UPGRADE

  • USAGE (R)

  • USE (R)

  • USER

  • USER_RESOURCES

  • USE_FRM

  • USING (R)

  • UTC_DATE (R)

  • UTC_TIME (R)

  • UTC_TIMESTAMP (R)

V

  • VALIDATION

  • VALUE

  • VALUES (R)

  • VARBINARY (R)

  • VARCHAR (R)

  • VARCHARACTER (R)

  • VARIABLES

  • VARYING (R)

  • VCPU added in 8.0.3 (nonreserved)

  • VIEW

  • VIRTUAL (R)

  • VISIBLE

W

  • WAIT

  • WARNINGS

  • WEEK

  • WEIGHT_STRING

  • WHEN (R)

  • WHERE (R)

  • WHILE (R)

  • WINDOW (R) added in 8.0.2 (reserved)

  • WITH (R)

  • WITHOUT

  • WORK

  • WRAPPER

  • WRITE (R)

X

  • X509

  • XA

  • XID

  • XML

  • XOR (R)

Y

  • YEAR

  • YEAR_MONTH (R)

Z

  • ZEROFILL (R)

MySQL 8.0 New Keywords and Reserved Words

The following list shows the keywords and reserved words that are added in MySQL 8.0, compared to MySQL 5.7. Reserved keywords are marked with (R).

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W

A

  • ADMIN

B

  • BUCKETS

C

  • CLONE

  • COMPONENT

  • CUME_DIST (R)

D

  • DEFINITION

  • DENSE_RANK (R)

  • DESCRIPTION

E

  • EMPTY (R)

  • EXCEPT (R)

  • EXCLUDE

F

  • FIRST_VALUE (R)

  • FOLLOWING

G

  • GEOMCOLLECTION

  • GET_MASTER_PUBLIC_KEY

  • GROUPING (R)

  • GROUPS (R)

H

  • HISTOGRAM

  • HISTORY

I

  • INVISIBLE

J

  • JSON_TABLE (R)

L

  • LAG (R)

  • LAST_VALUE (R)

  • LEAD (R)

  • LOCKED

M

  • MASTER_PUBLIC_KEY_PATH

N

  • NESTED

  • NOWAIT

  • NTH_VALUE (R)

  • NTILE (R)

  • NULLS

O

  • OF (R)

  • ORDINALITY

  • ORGANIZATION

  • OTHERS

  • OVER (R)

P

  • PATH

  • PERCENT_RANK (R)

  • PERSIST (R)

  • PERSIST_ONLY (R)

  • PRECEDING

  • PROCESS

R

  • RANK (R)

  • RECURSIVE (R)

  • REFERENCE

  • REMOTE

  • RESOURCE

  • RESPECT

  • RESTART

  • REUSE

  • ROLE

  • ROW_NUMBER (R)

S

  • SKIP

  • SRID

  • SYSTEM (R)

T

  • THREAD_PRIORITY

  • TIES

U

  • UNBOUNDED

V

  • VCPU

  • VISIBLE

W

  • WINDOW (R)

MySQL 8.0 Removed Keywords and Reserved Words

The following list shows the keywords and reserved words that are removed in MySQL 8.0, compared to MySQL 5.7. Reserved keywords are marked with (R).

  • ANALYSE

  • DES_KEY_FILE

  • PARSE_GCOL_EXPR

  • REDOFILE

  • SQL_CACHE


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