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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Subpartitioning

23.2.6 Subpartitioning

Subpartitioning—also known as composite partitioning—is the further division of each partition in a partitioned table. Consider the following CREATE TABLE statement:

CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
    PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(purchased) )
    SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) )
    SUBPARTITIONS 2 (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE
    );

Table ts has 3 RANGE partitions. Each of these partitions—p0, p1, and p2—is further divided into 2 subpartitions. In effect, the entire table is divided into 3 * 2 = 6 partitions. However, due to the action of the PARTITION BY RANGE clause, the first 2 of these store only those records with a value less than 1990 in the purchased column.

It is possible to subpartition tables that are partitioned by RANGE or LIST. Subpartitions may use either HASH or KEY partitioning. This is also known as composite partitioning.

Note

SUBPARTITION BY HASH and SUBPARTITION BY KEY generally follow the same syntax rules as PARTITION BY HASH and PARTITION BY KEY, respectively. An exception to this is that SUBPARTITION BY KEY (unlike PARTITION BY KEY) does not currently support a default column, so the column used for this purpose must be specified, even if the table has an explicit primary key. This is a known issue which we are working to address; see Issues with subpartitions, for more information and an example.

It is also possible to define subpartitions explicitly using SUBPARTITION clauses to specify options for individual subpartitions. For example, a more verbose fashion of creating the same table ts as shown in the previous example would be:

CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
    PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(purchased) )
    SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) ) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990) (
            SUBPARTITION s0,
            SUBPARTITION s1
        ),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000) (
            SUBPARTITION s2,
            SUBPARTITION s3
        ),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE (
            SUBPARTITION s4,
            SUBPARTITION s5
        )
    );

Some syntactical items of note are listed here:

  • Each partition must have the same number of subpartitions.

  • If you explicitly define any subpartitions using SUBPARTITION on any partition of a partitioned table, you must define them all. In other words, the following statement will fail:

    CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
        PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(purchased) )
        SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) ) (
            PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990) (
                SUBPARTITION s0,
                SUBPARTITION s1
            ),
            PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000),
            PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE (
                SUBPARTITION s2,
                SUBPARTITION s3
            )
        );

    This statement would still fail even if it used SUBPARTITIONS 2.

  • Each SUBPARTITION clause must include (at a minimum) a name for the subpartition. Otherwise, you may set any desired option for the subpartition or allow it to assume its default setting for that option.

  • Subpartition names must be unique across the entire table. For example, the following CREATE TABLE statement is valid:

    CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
        PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(purchased) )
        SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) ) (
            PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990) (
                SUBPARTITION s0,
                SUBPARTITION s1
            ),
            PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000) (
                SUBPARTITION s2,
                SUBPARTITION s3
            ),
            PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE (
                SUBPARTITION s4,
                SUBPARTITION s5
            )
        );