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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Subpartitioning

20.2.6 Subpartitioning

Subpartitioning—also known as composite partitioning—is the further division of each partition in a partitioned table. Consider the following CREATE TABLE statement:

CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
    PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(purchased) )
    SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) )
    SUBPARTITIONS 2 (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE
    );

Table ts has 3 RANGE partitions. Each of these partitions—p0, p1, and p2—is further divided into 2 subpartitions. In effect, the entire table is divided into 3 * 2 = 6 partitions. However, due to the action of the PARTITION BY RANGE clause, the first 2 of these store only those records with a value less than 1990 in the purchased column.

In MySQL 5.7, it is possible to subpartition tables that are partitioned by RANGE or LIST. Subpartitions may use either HASH or KEY partitioning. This is also known as composite partitioning.

Note

SUBPARTITION BY HASH and SUBPARTITION BY KEY generally follow the same syntax rules as PARTITION BY HASH and PARTITION BY KEY, respectively. An exception to this is that SUBPARTITION BY KEY (unlike PARTITION BY KEY) does not currently support a default column, so the column used for this purpose must be specified, even if the table has an explicit primary key. This is a known issue which we are working to address; see Issues with subpartitions, for more information and an example.

It is also possible to define subpartitions explicitly using SUBPARTITION clauses to specify options for individual subpartitions. For example, a more verbose fashion of creating the same table ts as shown in the previous example would be:

CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
    PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(purchased) )
    SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) ) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990) (
            SUBPARTITION s0,
            SUBPARTITION s1
        ),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000) (
            SUBPARTITION s2,
            SUBPARTITION s3
        ),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE (
            SUBPARTITION s4,
            SUBPARTITION s5
        )
    );

Some syntactical items of note are listed here:

  • Each partition must have the same number of subpartitions.

  • If you explicitly define any subpartitions using SUBPARTITION on any partition of a partitioned table, you must define them all. In other words, the following statement will fail:

    CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
        PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(purchased) )
        SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) ) (
            PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990) (
                SUBPARTITION s0,
                SUBPARTITION s1
            ),
            PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000),
            PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE (
                SUBPARTITION s2,
                SUBPARTITION s3
            )
        );
    

    This statement would still fail even if it included a SUBPARTITIONS 2 clause.

  • Each SUBPARTITION clause must include (at a minimum) a name for the subpartition. Otherwise, you may set any desired option for the subpartition or allow it to assume its default setting for that option.

  • Subpartition names must be unique across the entire table. For example, the following CREATE TABLE statement is valid in MySQL 5.7:

    CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
        PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(purchased) )
        SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) ) (
            PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990) (
                SUBPARTITION s0,
                SUBPARTITION s1
            ),
            PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000) (
                SUBPARTITION s2,
                SUBPARTITION s3
            ),
            PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE (
                SUBPARTITION s4,
                SUBPARTITION s5
            )
        );
    

Subpartitions can be used with especially large tables to distribute data and indexes across many disks. Suppose that you have 6 disks mounted as /disk0, /disk1, /disk2, and so on. Now consider the following example:

CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
    PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(purchased) )
    SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) ) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990) (
            SUBPARTITION s0
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk0/data'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk0/idx',
            SUBPARTITION s1
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk1/data'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk1/idx'
        ),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000) (
            SUBPARTITION s2
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk2/data'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk2/idx',
            SUBPARTITION s3
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk3/data'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk3/idx'
        ),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE (
            SUBPARTITION s4
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk4/data'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk4/idx',
            SUBPARTITION s5
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk5/data'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk5/idx'
        )
    );

In this case, a separate disk is used for the data and for the indexes of each RANGE. Many other variations are possible; another example might be:

CREATE TABLE ts (id INT, purchased DATE)
    PARTITION BY RANGE(YEAR(purchased))
    SUBPARTITION BY HASH( TO_DAYS(purchased) ) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1990) (
            SUBPARTITION s0a
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk0'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk1',
            SUBPARTITION s0b
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk2'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk3'
        ),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (2000) (
            SUBPARTITION s1a
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk4/data'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk4/idx',
            SUBPARTITION s1b
                DATA DIRECTORY = '/disk5/data'
                INDEX DIRECTORY = '/disk5/idx'
        ),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE (
            SUBPARTITION s2a,
            SUBPARTITION s2b
        )
    );

Here, the storage is as follows:

  • Rows with purchased dates from before 1990 take up a vast amount of space, so are split up 4 ways, with a separate disk dedicated to the data and to the indexes for each of the two subpartitions (s0a and s0b) making up partition p0. In other words:

    • The data for subpartition s0a is stored on /disk0.

    • The indexes for subpartition s0a are stored on /disk1.

    • The data for subpartition s0b is stored on /disk2.

    • The indexes for subpartition s0b are stored on /disk3.

  • Rows containing dates ranging from 1990 to 1999 (partition p1) do not require as much room as those from before 1990. These are split between 2 disks (/disk4 and /disk5) rather than 4 disks as with the legacy records stored in p0:

    • Data and indexes belonging to p1's first subpartition (s1a) are stored on /disk4—the data in /disk4/data, and the indexes in /disk4/idx.

    • Data and indexes belonging to p1's second subpartition (s1b) are stored on /disk5—the data in /disk5/data, and the indexes in /disk5/idx.

  • Rows reflecting dates from the year 2000 to the present (partition p2) do not take up as much space as required by either of the two previous ranges. Currently, it is sufficient to store all of these in the default location.

    In future, when the number of purchases for the decade beginning with the year 2000 grows to a point where the default location no longer provides sufficient space, the corresponding rows can be moved using an ALTER TABLE ... REORGANIZE PARTITION statement. See Section 20.3, “Partition Management”, for an explanation of how this can be done.

The DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options are not permitted in partition definitions when the NO_DIR_IN_CREATE server SQL mode is in effect. In MySQL 5.7, these options are also not permitted when defining subpartitions (Bug #42954).


User Comments
  Posted by Chris Johnson on January 29, 2010
Here is an example of programatically building a sub partitioned table by year and month using PHP.
http://chrisjohnson.blogsite.org/programatically-building-mysql-partitioned-tables/

See link for why I like to name my partitions rather than use system generated names.


<?PHP
$sql
="CREATE TABLE `data_collected` (
`id` int(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0',
`sensor_number` int(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0',
`data_date` date NOT NULL DEFAULT '0000-00-00',
`data_time` char(4) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
`value` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`id`,`sensor_number`,`data_date`,`data_time`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
/*!50100 PARTITION BY RANGE (YEAR(data_date))
SUBPARTITION BY HASH (MONTH(data_date))
("
;

for(
$i=1994;$i<2012;$i++)
{
$m=$i-1;
$sql.="\nPARTITION p$m VALUES LESS THAN ($i)
(SUBPARTITION s_dec_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_jan_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_feb_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_mar_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_apr_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_may_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_jun_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_jul_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_aug_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_sep_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_oct_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM,
SUBPARTITION s_nov_
$m ENGINE = MyISAM)";
if (
$i!=2011)
$sql.=',';
else
$sql.=")*/";
}

echo 
$sql;
mysql_connect("localhost",'bla','bla');
mysql_select_db("weather");
mysql_query("drop table if exists data_collected");
mysql_query($sql) or die(mysql_error());
?>

  Posted by Тест Босх on March 10, 2011
Previous example is a bad idea. Records wont be pruned. Better use

http://dev.mysql.com/tech-resources/articles/mysql_5.1_partitioning_with_dates.html
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