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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Character Set and Collation Compatibility

10.8.3 Character Set and Collation Compatibility

Each character set has one or more collations, but each collation is associated with one and only one character set. Therefore, the following statement causes an error message because the latin2_bin collation is not legal with the latin1 character set:

mysql> SELECT _latin1 'x' COLLATE latin2_bin;
ERROR 1253 (42000): COLLATION 'latin2_bin' is not valid
for CHARACTER SET 'latin1'