MySQL Group Replication is a MySQL plugin and it builds on the existing MySQL replication infrastructure, taking advantage of features such as the binary log, row-based logging, and global transaction identifiers. It integrates with current MySQL frameworks, such as the performance schema or plugin and service infrastructures. The following figure presents a block diagram depicting the overall architecture of MySQL Group Replication.
The MySQL Group Replication plugin includes a set of APIs for capture, apply, and lifecycle, which control how the plugin interacts with MySQL Server (shown at the top of the figure). There are interfaces to make information flow from the server to the plugin and vice versa. These interfaces isolate the MySQL Server core from the Group Replication plugin, and are mostly hooks placed in the transaction execution pipeline. In one direction, from server to the plugin, there are notifications for events such as the server starting, the server recovering, the server being ready to accept connections, and the server being about to commit a transaction. In the other direction, the plugin instructs the server to perform actions such as committing or aborting ongoing transactions, or queuing transactions in the relay log.
The next layer of the Group Replication plugin architecture is a set of components that react when a notification is routed to them. The capture component is responsible for keeping track of context related to transactions that are executing. The applier component is responsible for executing remote transactions on the database. The recovery component manages distributed recovery, and is responsible for getting a server that is joining the group up to date by selecting the donor, orchestrating the catch up procedure and reacting to donor failures.
Continuing down the stack, the replication protocol module contains the specific logic of the replication protocol. It handles conflict detection, and receives and propagates transactions to the group.
The final two layers of the Group Replication plugin architecture are the Group Communication System (GCS) API, and an implementation of a Paxos-based group communication engine. The GCS API is a high level API that abstracts the properties required to build a replicated state machine (see Section 17.1, “Group Replication Background”). It therefore decouples the implementation of the messaging layer from the remaining upper layers of the plugin. The group communication engine handles communications with the members of the replication group (shown at the bottom of the figure).