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MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables

4.4.7 mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables

mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.3, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair strategies.

You should execute mysql_upgrade each time you upgrade MySQL.

If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle”.)

Note

On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.

Caution

You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.

To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running. Then invoke it like this:

shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.

If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the appropriate port:

shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]

For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.

mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:

mysqlcheck --no-defaults --databases
 --fix-db-names --fix-table-names mysql
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --databases
 --auto-repair mysql
mysql < fix_priv_tables
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --all-databases
 --skip-database=mysql --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --all-databases
 --skip-database=mysql --auto-repair

Notes about the preceding commands:

All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.

mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check regardless, use the --force option.

mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.13, “Server-Side Help”.

By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run mysql_upgrade again:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');
mysql> quit

shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. Unrecognized options are passed to mysqlcheck. For information about option files, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

Table 4.7 mysql_upgrade Options

Format Description Introduced
--basedir Not used
--character-sets-dir Directory where character sets are installed
--compress Compress all information sent between client and server
--datadir Not used
--debug Write debugging log
--debug-check Print debugging information when program exits
--debug-info Print debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-auth Authentication plugin to use 5.6.2
--default-character-set Specify default character set
--defaults-extra-file Read named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-file Read only named option file
--defaults-group-suffix Option group suffix value
--force Force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for current version of MySQL
--help Display help message and exit
--host Connect to MySQL server on given host
--login-path Read login path options from .mylogin.cnf 5.6.6
--no-defaults Read no option files
--password Password to use when connecting to server
--pipe On Windows, connect to server using named pipe
--plugin-dir Directory where plugins are installed 5.6.2
--port TCP/IP port number for connection
--print-defaults Print default options
--protocol Connection protocol to use
--shared-memory-base-name The name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--socket For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl Enable encrypted connection
--ssl-ca File that contains list of trusted SSL Certificate Authorities
--ssl-capath Directory that contains trusted SSL Certificate Authority certificate files
--ssl-cert File that contains X509 certificate
--ssl-cipher List of permitted ciphers for connection encryption
--ssl-crl File that contains certificate revocation lists 5.6.3
--ssl-crlpath Directory that contains certificate revocation list files 5.6.3
--ssl-key File that contains X509 key
--ssl-mode Security state of connection to server 5.6.30
--ssl-verify-server-cert Verify host name against server certificate Common Name identity
--tmpdir Directory for temporary files
--upgrade-system-tables Update only system tables, not data
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verbose Verbose mode
--version-check Check for proper server version 5.6.12
--write-binlog Write all statements to binary log


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