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MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables

4.4.7 mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables

Each time you upgrade MySQL, you should execute mysql_upgrade, which looks for incompatibilities with the upgraded MySQL server:

  • It upgrades the system tables in the mysql schema so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

  • It upgrades the Performance Schema.

  • It examines user schemas.

If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.10, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair strategies.

If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle”.)


On Windows, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.


You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before upgrading your MySQL installation and running mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.

Use mysql_upgrade like this:

  1. Ensure that the server is running.

  2. Invoke mysql_upgrade to upgrade the system tables in the mysql schema and check and repair tables in other schemas:

    mysql_upgrade [options]
  3. Stop the server and restart it so that any system table changes take effect.

If you have multiple MySQL server instances to upgrade, invoke mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to each of the desired servers. For example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the appropriate port:

mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]

For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.

By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you should see a message that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run mysql_upgrade again:

$> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');
mysql> quit

$> mysql_upgrade [options]

mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:

mysqlcheck --no-defaults --databases
 --fix-db-names --fix-table-names mysql
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --databases
 --auto-repair mysql
mysql < fix_priv_tables
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --all-databases
 --skip-database=mysql --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --all-databases
 --skip-database=mysql --auto-repair

Notes about the preceding commands:

mysql_upgrade marks all checked and repaired tables with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that the next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can be determined whether there is any need to check or repair a given table again.

mysql_upgrade saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check regardless, use the --force option.

mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the time zone tables or help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.13, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”, and Section 5.1.14, “Server-Side Help Support”.

mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. Unrecognized options are passed to mysqlcheck. For information about option files, see Section, “Using Option Files”.

Table 4.9 mysql_upgrade Options

Option Name Description Introduced
--basedir Not used
--character-sets-dir Directory where character sets are installed
--compress Compress all information sent between client and server
--datadir Not used
--debug Write debugging log
--debug-check Print debugging information when program exits
--debug-info Print debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-auth Authentication plugin to use
--default-character-set Specify default character set
--defaults-extra-file Read named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-file Read only named option file
--defaults-group-suffix Option group suffix value
--force Force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for current MySQL version
--help Display help message and exit
--host Host on which MySQL server is located
--login-path Read login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--no-defaults Read no option files
--password Password to use when connecting to server
--pipe Connect to server using named pipe (Windows only)
--plugin-dir Directory where plugins are installed
--port TCP/IP port number for connection
--print-defaults Print default options
--protocol Transport protocol to use
--shared-memory-base-name Shared-memory name for shared-memory connections (Windows only)
--socket Unix socket file or Windows named pipe to use
--ssl Enable connection encryption
--ssl-ca File that contains list of trusted SSL Certificate Authorities
--ssl-capath Directory that contains trusted SSL Certificate Authority certificate files
--ssl-cert File that contains X.509 certificate
--ssl-cipher Permissible ciphers for connection encryption
--ssl-crl File that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpath Directory that contains certificate revocation-list files
--ssl-key File that contains X.509 key
--ssl-mode Desired security state of connection to server 5.6.30
--ssl-verify-server-cert Verify host name against server certificate Common Name identity
--tmpdir Directory for temporary files
--upgrade-system-tables Update only system tables, not user schemas
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verbose Verbose mode
--version-check Check for proper server version 5.6.12
--write-binlog Write all statements to binary log