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MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  NDB Cluster Replication: Bidrectional and Circular Replication

18.6.10 NDB Cluster Replication: Bidrectional and Circular Replication

It is possible to use NDB Cluster for bidirectional replication between two clusters, as well as for circular replication between any number of clusters.

Circular replication example.  In the next few paragraphs we consider the example of a replication setup involving three NDB Clusters numbered 1, 2, and 3, in which Cluster 1 acts as the replication source for Cluster 2, Cluster 2 acts as the source for Cluster 3, and Cluster 3 acts as the source for Cluster 1. Each cluster has two SQL nodes, with SQL nodes A and B belonging to Cluster 1, SQL nodes C and D belonging to Cluster 2, and SQL nodes E and F belonging to Cluster 3.

Circular replication using these clusters is supported as long as the following conditions are met:

  • The SQL nodes on all sources and replicas are the same.

  • All SQL nodes acting as sources and replicas are started with the log_slave_updates system variable enabled.

This type of circular replication setup is shown in the following diagram:

Figure 18.27 NDB Cluster Circular Replication with All Sources As Replicas

Some content is described in the surrounding text. The diagram shows three clusters, each with two nodes. Arrows connecting SQL nodes in different clusters illustrate that all sources are also replicas.

In this scenario, SQL node A in Cluster 1 replicates to SQL node C in Cluster 2; SQL node C replicates to SQL node E in Cluster 3; SQL node E replicates to SQL node A. In other words, the replication line (indicated by the curved arrows in the diagram) directly connects all SQL nodes used as replication sources and replicas.

It is also possible to set up circular replication in such a way that not all source SQL nodes are also replicas, as shown here:

Figure 18.28 NDB Cluster Circular Replication Where Not All Sources Are Replicas

Some content is described in the surrounding text. The diagram shows three clusters, each with two nodes. Arrows connecting SQL nodes in different clusters illustrate that not all sources are replicas.

In this case, different SQL nodes in each cluster are used as replication sources and replicas. You must not start any of the SQL nodes with the log_slave_updates system variable enabled. This type of circular replication scheme for NDB Cluster, in which the line of replication (again indicated by the curved arrows in the diagram) is discontinuous, should be possible, but it should be noted that it has not yet been thoroughly tested and must therefore still be considered experimental.

Using NDB-native backup and restore to initialize a replica cluster.  When setting up circular replication, it is possible to initialize the replica cluster by using the management client BACKUP command on one NDB Cluster to create a backup and then applying this backup on another NDB Cluster using ndb_restore. This does not automatically create binary logs on the second NDB Cluster 's SQL node acting as the replica; in order to cause the binary logs to be created, you must issue a SHOW TABLES statement on that SQL node; this should be done prior to running START SLAVE. This is a known issue.

Multi-source failover example.  In this section, we discuss failover in a multi-source NDB Cluster replication setup with three NDB Clusters having server IDs 1, 2, and 3. In this scenario, Cluster 1 replicates to Clusters 2 and 3; Cluster 2 also replicates to Cluster 3. This relationship is shown here:

Figure 18.29 NDB Cluster Multi-Master Replication With 3 Sources

Multi-source NDB Cluster replication setup with three NDB Clusters having server IDs 1, 2, and 3; Cluster 1 replicates to Clusters 2 and 3; Cluster 2 also replicates to Cluster 3.

In other words, data replicates from Cluster 1 to Cluster 3 through 2 different routes: directly, and by way of Cluster 2.

Not all MySQL servers taking part in multi-source replication must act as both source and replica, and a given NDB Cluster might use different SQL nodes for different replication channels. Such a case is shown here:

Figure 18.30 NDB Cluster Multi-Source Replication, With MySQL Servers

Concepts are described in the surrounding text. Shows three nodes: SQL node A in Cluster 1 replicates to SQL node F in Cluster 3; SQL node B in Cluster 1 replicates to SQL node C in Cluster 2; SQL node E in Cluster 3 replicates to SQL node G in Cluster 3. SQL nodes A and B in cluster 1 have --log-slave-updates=0; SQL nodes C in Cluster 2, and SQL nodes F and G in Cluster 3 have --log-slave-updates=1; and SQL nodes D and E in Cluster 2 have --log-slave-updates=0.

MySQL servers acting as replicas must be run with the log_slave_updates system variable enabled. Which mysqld processes require this option is also shown in the preceding diagram.

Note

Using the log_slave_updates system variable has no effect on servers not being run as replicas.

The need for failover arises when one of the replicating clusters goes down. In this example, we consider the case where Cluster 1 is lost to service, and so Cluster 3 loses 2 sources of updates from Cluster 1. Because replication between NDB Clusters is asynchronous, there is no guarantee that Cluster 3's updates originating directly from Cluster 1 are more recent than those received through Cluster 2. You can handle this by ensuring that Cluster 3 catches up to Cluster 2 with regard to updates from Cluster 1. In terms of MySQL servers, this means that you need to replicate any outstanding updates from MySQL server C to server F.

On server C, perform the following queries:

mysqlC> SELECT @latest:=MAX(epoch)
     ->     FROM mysql.ndb_apply_status
     ->     WHERE server_id=1;

mysqlC> SELECT
     ->     @file:=SUBSTRING_INDEX(File, '/', -1),
     ->     @pos:=Position
     ->     FROM mysql.ndb_binlog_index
     ->     WHERE orig_epoch >= @latest
     ->     AND orig_server_id = 1
     ->     ORDER BY epoch ASC LIMIT 1;
Note

You can improve the performance of this query, and thus likely speed up failover times significantly, by adding the appropriate index to the ndb_binlog_index table. See Section 18.6.4, “NDB Cluster Replication Schema and Tables”, for more information.

Copy over the values for @file and @pos manually from server C to server F (or have your application perform the equivalent). Then, on server F, execute the following CHANGE MASTER TO statement:

mysqlF> CHANGE MASTER TO
     ->     MASTER_HOST = 'serverC'
     ->     MASTER_LOG_FILE='@file',
     ->     MASTER_LOG_POS=@pos;

Once this has been done, you can issue a START SLAVE statement on MySQL server F; this causes any missing updates originating from server B to be replicated to server F.

The CHANGE MASTER TO statement also supports an IGNORE_SERVER_IDS option which takes a comma-separated list of server IDs and causes events originating from the corresponding servers to be ignored. For more information, see Section 13.4.2.1, “CHANGE MASTER TO Statement”, and Section 13.7.5.35, “SHOW SLAVE STATUS Statement”. For information about how this option intereacts with the ndb_log_apply_status variable, see Section 18.6.8, “Implementing Failover with NDB Cluster Replication”.