The member servers in an InnoDB Cluster make use of three types of user accounts. One InnoDB Cluster server configuration account is used to configure the server instances for the cluster. One or more InnoDB Cluster administrator accounts can be created for administrators to manage the server instances after the cluster has been set up. One or more MySQL Router accounts can be created for MySQL Router instances to connect to the cluster. Each of the user accounts must exist on all of the member servers in the InnoDB Cluster, with the same user name and the same password.
- InnoDB Cluster server configuration account
This account is used to create and configure the member servers of an InnoDB Cluster. Each member server has only one server configuration account. The same user account name and password must be used on every member server in the cluster. You can use the
rootaccount on the servers for this purpose, but if you do this, the
rootaccount on every member server in the cluster must have the same password. This is not recommended for security reasons.
The preferred approach is to create the InnoDB Cluster server configuration account using a
dba.configureInstance()command with the
clusterAdminoption. For better security, specify the password at the interactive prompt, otherwise specify it using the
clusterAdminPasswordoption. Create the same account, with the same user name and password, in the same way on every server instance that will be part of the InnoDB Cluster - both the instance to which you connect to create the cluster, and the instances that will join the cluster after that.
dba.configureInstance()command grants the account the required permissions automatically. You may set up the account manually if you prefer, granting it the permissions listed in Configuring InnoDB Cluster Administrator Accounts Manually. The account needs full read and write privileges on the InnoDB Cluster metadata tables, in addition to full MySQL administrator privileges.
The InnoDB Cluster server configuration account that you create using the
dba.configureInstance()operation is not replicated to other servers in the InnoDB Cluster. MySQL Shell disables binary logging for the
dba.configureInstance()operation. This means that you must create the account on every server instance individually.
- InnoDB Cluster administrator accounts
These accounts can be used to administer an InnoDB Cluster after you have completed the configuration process. You can set up more than one of them. Each account must exist on every member server in an InnoDB Cluster with the same user name and password.
To create an InnoDB Cluster administrator account for an InnoDB ClusterSet deployment, you issue a
command after you have added all the instances to that cluster. The command creates an account with the user name and password that you specify, with all the required permissions. A transaction to create an account with
is written to the binary log and sent to all the other server instances in the cluster to create the account on them.
If the primary InnoDB Cluster was set up in a version before MySQL Shell 8.0.20, the
command might have been used with the
updateoption to update the privileges of the InnoDB Cluster server configuration account. This is a special use of the command that is not written to the binary log.
- MySQL Router accounts
These accounts are used by MySQL Router to connect to server instances in an InnoDB Cluster. You can set up more than one of them. Each account must exist on every member server in an InnoDB Cluster with the same user name and password. The process to create a MySQL Router account is the same as for an InnoDB Cluster administrator account, but using a
command. For instructions to create or upgrade a MySQL Router account, see Section 6.4.2, “Configuring the MySQL Router User”.
If you want to manually configure an InnoDB Cluster
administration user, that user requires the privileges listed
here, all with
This list of privileges is based on the current version of
MySQL Shell. The privileges are subject to change between
releases. Therefore the recommended way to set up
administration accounts is using the
Each account used to administer an InnoDB Cluster, InnoDB ClusterSet, or InnoDB ReplicaSet deployment must exist on all the member server instances in the deployment, with the same user name, and the same password.
Global privileges on *.* for
Schema specific privileges for
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES,
UPDATE; and for
If only read operations are needed, for example to create a user
for monitoring purposes, an account with more restricted
privileges can be used. To give the user
your_user the privileges needed to
monitor InnoDB Cluster issue:
GRANT SELECT ON mysql_innodb_cluster_metadata.* TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON mysql.slave_master_info TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.global_status TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.global_variables TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.replication_applier_configuration TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.replication_applier_status TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.replication_applier_status_by_coordinator TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.replication_applier_status_by_worker TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.replication_connection_configuration TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.replication_connection_status TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.replication_group_member_stats TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.replication_group_members TO your_user@'%'; GRANT SELECT ON performance_schema.threads TO your_user@'%' WITH GRANT OPTION;
For more information, see Account Management Statements.
As part of using Group Replication, InnoDB Cluster creates
internal recovery users which enable connections between the
servers in the cluster. These users are internal to the cluster,
and the user name of the generated users follows a naming scheme
unique to the instance. In versions earlier than 8.0.17 the user
name of the generated users followed a naming scheme of
The hostname used for the internal users depends on whether the
ipAllowlist option has been configured. If
ipAllowlist is not configured, it defaults to
AUTOMATIC and the internal users are created
using both the wildcard
% character and
localhost for the hostname value. When
ipAllowlist has been configured, for each
address in the
ipAllowlist list an internal
user is created.
For more information, see
Creating an Allowlist of Servers.
Each internal user has a randomly generated password. From version 8.0.18, AdminAPI enables you to change the generated password for internal users. See Resetting Recovery Account Passwords. The randomly generated users are given the following grants:
GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* to internal_user;
The internal user accounts are created on the seed instance and then replicated to the other instances in the cluster. The internal users are:
generated when creating a new cluster by issuing
generated when adding a new instance to the cluster by issuing
In addition, the
operation can also result in a new internal user being generated
ipAllowlist option is used to
specify a hostname. For example by issuing:
all previously existing internal users are removed and a new
internal user is created, taking into account the
ipAllowlist value used.
For more information on the internal users required by Group Replication, see User Credentials For Distributed Recovery.
From version 8.0.18, you can use the
operation to reset the passwords for the internal recovery
accounts created by InnoDB Cluster, for example to follow a
custom password lifetime policy. Use the
operation to reset the passwords for all internal recovery
accounts used by the cluster. The operation sets a new random
password for the internal recovery account on each instance
which is online. If an instance cannot be reached, the operation
fails. You can use the
force option to ignore
such instances, but this is not recommended, and it is safer to
bring the instance back online before using this operation. This
operation only applies to the passwords created by
InnoDB Cluster and cannot be used to update manually created
The user which executes this operation must have all the
required administer privileges, in particular
CREATE USER, in order to ensure
that the password of recovery accounts can be changed
regardless of the password verification-required policy. In
other words, independent of whether the
system variable is enabled or not.