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1.10.1 Unicode Character Sets

This section describes the collations available for Unicode character sets and their differentiating properties. For general information about Unicode, see Section 1.9, “Unicode Support”.

MySQL supports multiple Unicode character sets:

  • utf8mb4: A UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode character set using one to four bytes per character.

  • utf8mb3: A UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode character set using one to three bytes per character.

  • utf8: An alias for utf8mb3.

  • ucs2: The UCS-2 encoding of the Unicode character set using two bytes per character.

  • utf16: The UTF-16 encoding for the Unicode character set using two or four bytes per character. Like ucs2 but with an extension for supplementary characters.

  • utf16le: The UTF-16LE encoding for the Unicode character set. Like utf16 but little-endian rather than big-endian.

  • utf32: The UTF-32 encoding for the Unicode character set using four bytes per character.

Note

The utf8mb3 character set is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. Please use utf8mb4 instead. Although utf8 is currently an alias for utf8mb3, at some point utf8 will become a reference to utf8mb4. To avoid ambiguity about the meaning of utf8, consider specifying utf8mb4 explicitly for character set references instead of utf8.

utf8mb4, utf16, utf16le, and utf32 support Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) characters and supplementary characters that lie outside the BMP. utf8 and ucs2 support only BMP characters.

Most Unicode character sets have a general collation (indicated by _general in the name or by the absence of a language specifier), a binary collation (indicated by _bin in the name), and several language-specific collations (indicated by language specifiers). For example, for utf8mb4, utf8mb4_general_ci and utf8mb4_bin are its general and binary collations, and utf8mb4_danish_ci is one of its language-specific collations.

Most character sets have a single binary collation. utf8mb4 is an exception that has two: utf8mb4_bin and (as of MySQL 8.0.17) utf8mb4_0900_bin. These two binary collations have the same sort order but are distinguished by their pad attribute and collating weight characteristics. See Collation Pad Attributes, and Character Collating Weights.

Collation support for utf16le is limited. The only collations available are utf16le_general_ci and utf16le_bin. These are similar to utf16_general_ci and utf16_bin.

Unicode Collation Algorithm (UCA) Versions

MySQL implements the xxx_unicode_ci collations according to the Unicode Collation Algorithm (UCA) described at http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr10/. The collation uses the version-4.0.0 UCA weight keys: http://www.unicode.org/Public/UCA/4.0.0/allkeys-4.0.0.txt. The xxx_unicode_ci collations have only partial support for the Unicode Collation Algorithm. Some characters are not supported, and combining marks are not fully supported. This affects primarily Vietnamese, Yoruba, and some smaller languages such as Navajo. A combined character is considered different from the same character written with a single unicode character in string comparisons, and the two characters are considered to have a different length (for example, as returned by the CHAR_LENGTH() function or in result set metadata).

Unicode collations based on UCA versions higher than 4.0.0 include the version in the collation name. Examples:

The LOWER() and UPPER() functions perform case folding according to the collation of their argument. A character that has uppercase and lowercase versions only in a Unicode version higher than 4.0.0 is converted by these functions only if the argument collation uses a high enough UCA version.

Collation Pad Attributes

Collations based on UCA 9.0.0 and higher are faster than collations based on UCA versions prior to 9.0.0. They also have a pad attribute of NO PAD, in contrast to PAD SPACE as used in collations based on UCA versions prior to 9.0.0. For comparison of nonbinary strings, NO PAD collations treat spaces at the end of strings like any other character (see Trailing Space Handling in Comparisons).

To determine the pad attribute for a collation, use the INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLLATIONS table, which has a PAD_ATTRIBUTE column. For example:

mysql> SELECT COLLATION_NAME, PAD_ATTRIBUTE
       FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLLATIONS
       WHERE CHARACTER_SET_NAME = 'utf8mb4';
+----------------------------+---------------+
| COLLATION_NAME             | PAD_ATTRIBUTE |
+----------------------------+---------------+
| utf8mb4_general_ci         | PAD SPACE     |
| utf8mb4_bin                | PAD SPACE     |
| utf8mb4_unicode_ci         | PAD SPACE     |
| utf8mb4_icelandic_ci       | PAD SPACE     |
...
| utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci         | NO PAD        |
| utf8mb4_de_pb_0900_ai_ci   | NO PAD        |
| utf8mb4_is_0900_ai_ci      | NO PAD        |
...
| utf8mb4_ja_0900_as_cs      | NO PAD        |
| utf8mb4_ja_0900_as_cs_ks   | NO PAD        |
| utf8mb4_0900_as_ci         | NO PAD        |
| utf8mb4_ru_0900_ai_ci      | NO PAD        |
| utf8mb4_ru_0900_as_cs      | NO PAD        |
| utf8mb4_zh_0900_as_cs      | NO PAD        |
| utf8mb4_0900_bin           | NO PAD        |
+----------------------------+---------------+

Comparison of nonbinary string values (CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT) that have a NO PAD collation differ from other collations with respect to trailing spaces. For example, 'a' and 'a ' compare as different strings, not the same string. This can be seen using the binary collations for utf8mb4. The pad attribute for utf8mb4_bin is PAD SPACE, whereas for utf8mb4_0900_bin it is NO PAD. Consequently, operations involving utf8mb4_0900_bin do not add trailing spaces, and comparisons involving strings with trailing spaces may differ for the two collations:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c CHAR(10) COLLATE utf8mb4_bin);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)
mysql> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES('a');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE c = 'a ';
+------+
| c    |
+------+
| a    |
+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY c CHAR(10) COLLATE utf8mb4_0900_bin;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE c = 'a ';
Empty set (0.00 sec)

Language-Specific Collations

MySQL implements language-specific Unicode collations if the ordering based only on the Unicode Collation Algorithm (UCA) does not work well for a language. Language-specific collations are UCA-based, with additional language tailoring rules. Examples of such rules appear later in this section. For questions about particular language orderings, unicode.org provides Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR) collation charts at http://www.unicode.org/cldr/charts/30/collation/index.html.

For example, the nonlanguage-specific utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci and language-specific utf8mb4_LOCALE_0900_ai_ci Unicode collations each have these characteristics:

  • The collation is based on UCA 9.0.0 and CLDR v30, is accent insensitive, and case insensitive. These characteristics are indicated by _0900, _ai, and _ci in the collation name. Exception: utf8mb4_la_0900_ai_ci is not based on CLDR because Classical Latin is not defined in CLDR.

  • The collation works for all characters in the range [U+0, U+10FFFF].

  • If the collation is not language specific, it sorts all characters, including supplementary characters, in default order (described following). If the collation is language specific, it sorts characters of the language correctly according to language-specific rules, and characters not in the language in default order.

  • By default, the collation sorts characters having a code point listed in the DUCET table (Default Unicode Collation Element Table) according to the weight value assigned in the table. The collation sorts characters not having a code point listed in the DUCET table using their implicit weight value, which is constructed according to the UCA.

  • For non-language-specific collations, characters in contraction sequences are treated as separate characters. For language-specific collations, contractions might change character sorting order.

A collation name that includes a locale code or language name shown in the following table is a language-specific collation. Unicode character sets may include collations for one or more of these languages.

Table 1.3 Unicode Collation Language Specifiers

Language Language Specifier
Chinese zh
Classical Latin la or roman
Croatian hr or croatian
Czech cs or czech
Danish da or danish
Esperanto eo or esperanto
Estonian et or estonian
German phone book order de_pb or german2
Hungarian hu or hungarian
Icelandic is or icelandic
Japanese ja
Latvian lv or latvian
Lithuanian lt or lithuanian
Persian persian
Polish pl or polish
Romanian ro or romanian
Russian ru
Sinhala sinhala
Slovak sk or slovak
Slovenian sl or slovenian
Modern Spanish es or spanish
Traditional Spanish es_trad or spanish2
Swedish sv or swedish
Turkish tr or turkish
Vietnamese vi or vietnamese

Croatian collations are tailored for these Croatian letters: Č, Ć, , Đ, Lj, Nj, Š, Ž.

Danish collations may also be used for Norwegian.

For Japanese, the utf8mb4 character set includes utf8mb4_ja_0900_as_cs and utf8mb4_ja_0900_as_cs_ks collations. Both collations are accent sensitive and case-sensitive. utf8mb4_ja_0900_as_cs_ks is also kana sensitive and distinguishes Katakana characters from Hiragana characters, whereas utf8mb4_ja_0900_as_cs treats Katakana and Hiragana characters as equal for sorting. Applications that require a Japanese collation but not kana sensitivity may use utf8mb4_ja_0900_as_cs for better sort performance. utf8mb4_ja_0900_as_cs uses three weight levels for sorting; utf8mb4_ja_0900_as_cs_ks uses four.

For Classical Latin collations that are accent insensitive, I and J compare as equal, and U and V compare as equal. I and J, and U and V compare as equal on the base letter level. In other words, J is regarded as an accented I, and U is regarded as an accented V.

Spanish collations are available for modern and traditional Spanish. For both, ñ (n-tilde) is a separate letter between n and o. In addition, for traditional Spanish, ch is a separate letter between c and d, and ll is a separate letter between l and m.

Traditional Spanish collations may also be used for Asturian and Galician.

Swedish collations include Swedish rules. For example, in Swedish, the following relationship holds, which is not something expected by a German or French speaker:

Ü = Y < Ö

_general_ci Versus _unicode_ci Collations

For any Unicode character set, operations performed using the xxx_general_ci collation are faster than those for the xxx_unicode_ci collation. For example, comparisons for the utf8_general_ci collation are faster, but slightly less correct, than comparisons for utf8_unicode_ci. The reason is that utf8_unicode_ci supports mappings such as expansions; that is, when one character compares as equal to combinations of other characters. For example, ß is equal to ss in German and some other languages. utf8_unicode_ci also supports contractions and ignorable characters. utf8_general_ci is a legacy collation that does not support expansions, contractions, or ignorable characters. It can make only one-to-one comparisons between characters.

To further illustrate, the following equalities hold in both utf8_general_ci and utf8_unicode_ci (for the effect of this in comparisons or searches, see Section 1.8.6, “Examples of the Effect of Collation”):

Ä = A
Ö = O
Ü = U

A difference between the collations is that this is true for utf8_general_ci:

ß = s

Whereas this is true for utf8_unicode_ci, which supports the German DIN-1 ordering (also known as dictionary order):

ß = ss

MySQL implements utf8 language-specific collations if the ordering with utf8_unicode_ci does not work well for a language. For example, utf8_unicode_ci works fine for German dictionary order and French, so there is no need to create special utf8 collations.

utf8_general_ci also is satisfactory for both German and French, except that ß is equal to s, and not to ss. If this is acceptable for your application, you should use utf8_general_ci because it is faster. If this is not acceptable (for example, if you require German dictionary order), use utf8_unicode_ci because it is more accurate.

If you require German DIN-2 (phone book) ordering, use the utf8_german2_ci collation, which compares the following sets of characters equal:

Ä = Æ = AE
Ö = Œ = OE
Ü = UE
ß = ss

utf8_german2_ci is similar to latin1_german2_ci, but the latter does not compare Æ equal to AE or Œ equal to OE. There is no utf8_german_ci corresponding to latin1_german_ci for German dictionary order because utf8_general_ci suffices.

Character Collating Weights

A character's collating weight is determined as follows:

  • For all Unicode collations except the _bin (binary) collations, MySQL performs a table lookup to find a character's collating weight.

  • For _bin collations except utf8mb4_0900_bin, the weight is based on the code point, possibly with leading zero bytes added.

  • For utf8mb4_0900_bin, the weight is the utf8mb4 encoding bytes. The sort order is the same as for utf8mb4_bin, but much faster.

Collating weights can be displayed using the WEIGHT_STRING() function. (See String Functions and Operators.) If a collation uses a weight lookup table, but a character is not in the table (for example, because it is a new character), collating weight determination becomes more complex:

  • For BMP characters in general collations (xxx_general_ci), the weight is the code point.

  • For BMP characters in UCA collations (for example, xxx_unicode_ci and language-specific collations), the following algorithm applies:

    if (code >= 0x3400 && code <= 0x4DB5)
      base= 0xFB80; /* CJK Ideograph Extension */
    else if (code >= 0x4E00 && code <= 0x9FA5)
      base= 0xFB40; /* CJK Ideograph */
    else
      base= 0xFBC0; /* All other characters */
    aaaa= base +  (code >> 15);
    bbbb= (code & 0x7FFF) | 0x8000;

    The result is a sequence of two collating elements, aaaa followed by bbbb. For example:

    mysql> SELECT HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(_ucs2 0x04CF COLLATE ucs2_unicode_ci));
    +----------------------------------------------------------+
    | HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(_ucs2 0x04CF COLLATE ucs2_unicode_ci)) |
    +----------------------------------------------------------+
    | FBC084CF                                                 |
    +----------------------------------------------------------+

    Thus, U+04cf CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PALOCHKA is, with all UCA 4.0.0 collations, greater than U+04c0 CYRILLIC LETTER PALOCHKA. With UCA 5.2.0 collations, all palochkas sort together.

  • For supplementary characters in general collations, the weight is the weight for 0xfffd REPLACEMENT CHARACTER. For supplementary characters in UCA 4.0.0 collations, their collating weight is 0xfffd. That is, to MySQL, all supplementary characters are equal to each other, and greater than almost all BMP characters.

    An example with Deseret characters and COUNT(DISTINCT):

    CREATE TABLE t (s1 VARCHAR(5) CHARACTER SET utf32 COLLATE utf32_unicode_ci);
    INSERT INTO t VALUES (0xfffd);   /* REPLACEMENT CHARACTER */
    INSERT INTO t VALUES (0x010412); /* DESERET CAPITAL LETTER BEE */
    INSERT INTO t VALUES (0x010413); /* DESERET CAPITAL LETTER TEE */
    SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT s1) FROM t;

    The result is 2 because in the MySQL xxx_unicode_ci collations, the replacement character has a weight of 0x0dc6, whereas Deseret Bee and Deseret Tee both have a weight of 0xfffd. (Were the utf32_general_ci collation used instead, the result is 1 because all three characters have a weight of 0xfffd in that collation.)

    An example with cuneiform characters and WEIGHT_STRING():

    /*
    The four characters in the INSERT string are
    00000041  # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A
    0001218F  # CUNEIFORM SIGN KAB
    000121A7  # CUNEIFORM SIGN KISH
    00000042  # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B
    */
    CREATE TABLE t (s1 CHAR(4) CHARACTER SET utf32 COLLATE utf32_unicode_ci);
    INSERT INTO t VALUES (0x000000410001218f000121a700000042);
    SELECT HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(s1)) FROM t;

    The result is:

    0E33 FFFD FFFD 0E4A

    0E33 and 0E4A are primary weights as in UCA 4.0.0. FFFD is the weight for KAB and also for KISH.

    The rule that all supplementary characters are equal to each other is nonoptimal but is not expected to cause trouble. These characters are very rare, so it is very rare that a multi-character string consists entirely of supplementary characters. In Japan, since the supplementary characters are obscure Kanji ideographs, the typical user does not care what order they are in, anyway. If you really want rows sorted by the MySQL rule and secondarily by code point value, it is easy:

    ORDER BY s1 COLLATE utf32_unicode_ci, s1 COLLATE utf32_bin
  • For supplementary characters based on UCA versions higher than 4.0.0 (for example, xxx_unicode_520_ci), supplementary characters do not necessarily all have the same collating weight. Some have explicit weights from the UCA allkeys.txt file. Others have weights calculated from this algorithm:

    aaaa= base +  (code >> 15);
    bbbb= (code & 0x7FFF) | 0x8000;

There is a difference between ordering by the character's code value and ordering by the character's binary representation, a difference that appears only with utf16_bin, because of surrogates.

Suppose that utf16_bin (the binary collation for utf16) was a binary comparison byte by byte rather than character by character. If that were so, the order of characters in utf16_bin would differ from the order in utf8_bin. For example, the following chart shows two rare characters. The first character is in the range E000-FFFF, so it is greater than a surrogate but less than a supplementary. The second character is a supplementary.

Code point  Character                    utf8         utf16
----------  ---------                    ----         -----
0FF9D       HALFWIDTH KATAKANA LETTER N  EF BE 9D     FF 9D
10384       UGARITIC LETTER DELTA        F0 90 8E 84  D8 00 DF 84

The two characters in the chart are in order by code point value because 0xff9d < 0x10384. And they are in order by utf8 value because 0xef < 0xf0. But they are not in order by utf16 value, if we use byte-by-byte comparison, because 0xff > 0xd8.

So MySQL's utf16_bin collation is not byte by byte. It is by code point. When MySQL sees a supplementary-character encoding in utf16, it converts to the character's code-point value, and then compares. Therefore, utf8_bin and utf16_bin are the same ordering. This is consistent with the SQL:2008 standard requirement for a UCS_BASIC collation: UCS_BASIC is a collation in which the ordering is determined entirely by the Unicode scalar values of the characters in the strings being sorted. It is applicable to the UCS character repertoire. Since every character repertoire is a subset of the UCS repertoire, the UCS_BASIC collation is potentially applicable to every character set. NOTE 11: The Unicode scalar value of a character is its code point treated as an unsigned integer.

If the character set is ucs2, comparison is byte-by-byte, but ucs2 strings should not contain surrogates, anyway.

Miscellaneous Information

The xxx_general_mysql500_ci collations preserve the pre-5.1.24 ordering of the original xxx_general_ci collations and permit upgrades for tables created before MySQL 5.1.24 (Bug #27877).