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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual  /  Language Structure  /  Keywords and Reserved Words

9.3 Keywords and Reserved Words

Keywords are words that have significance in SQL. Certain keywords, such as SELECT, DELETE, or BIGINT, are reserved and require special treatment for use as identifiers such as table and column names. This may also be true for the names of built-in functions.

Nonreserved keywords are permitted as identifiers without quoting. Reserved words are permitted as identifiers if you quote them as described in Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”:

mysql> CREATE TABLE interval (begin INT, end INT);
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax ...
near 'interval (begin INT, end INT)'

BEGIN and END are keywords but not reserved, so their use as identifiers does not require quoting. INTERVAL is a reserved keyword and must be quoted to be used as an identifier:

mysql> CREATE TABLE `interval` (begin INT, end INT);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

Exception: A word that follows a period in a qualified name must be an identifier, so it need not be quoted even if it is reserved:

mysql> CREATE TABLE mydb.interval (begin INT, end INT);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

Names of built-in functions are permitted as identifiers but may require care to be used as such. For example, COUNT is acceptable as a column name. However, by default, no whitespace is permitted in function invocations between the function name and the following ( character. This requirement enables the parser to distinguish whether the name is used in a function call or in nonfunction context. For further details on recognition of function names, see Section 9.2.4, “Function Name Parsing and Resolution”.

The following table shows the keywords and reserved words in MySQL 5.7, along with changes to individual words from version to version. Reserved keywords are marked with (R). In addition, _FILENAME is reserved.

At some point, you might upgrade to a higher version, so it is a good idea to have a look at future reserved words, too. You can find these in the manuals that cover higher versions of MySQL. Most of the reserved words in the table are forbidden by standard SQL as column or table names (for example, GROUP). A few are reserved because MySQL needs them and uses a yacc parser.

Table 9.2 Keywords and Reserved Words in MySQL 5.7

ACCESSIBLE (R) ACCOUNT[a] ACTION
ADD (R) AFTER AGAINST
AGGREGATE ALGORITHM ALL (R)
ALTER (R) ALWAYS[b] ANALYSE
ANALYZE (R) AND (R) ANY
AS (R) ASC (R) ASCII
ASENSITIVE (R) AT AUTOEXTEND_SIZE
AUTO_INCREMENT AVG AVG_ROW_LENGTH
BACKUP BEFORE (R) BEGIN
BETWEEN (R) BIGINT (R) BINARY (R)
BINLOG BIT BLOB (R)
BLOCK BOOL BOOLEAN
BOTH (R) BTREE BY (R)
BYTE CACHE CALL (R)
CASCADE (R) CASCADED CASE (R)
CATALOG_NAME CHAIN CHANGE (R)
CHANGED CHANNEL[c] CHAR (R)
CHARACTER (R) CHARSET CHECK (R)
CHECKSUM CIPHER CLASS_ORIGIN
CLIENT CLOSE COALESCE
CODE COLLATE (R) COLLATION
COLUMN (R) COLUMNS COLUMN_FORMAT
COLUMN_NAME COMMENT COMMIT
COMMITTED COMPACT COMPLETION
COMPRESSED COMPRESSION[d] CONCURRENT
CONDITION (R) CONNECTION CONSISTENT
CONSTRAINT (R) CONSTRAINT_CATALOG CONSTRAINT_NAME
CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA CONTAINS CONTEXT
CONTINUE (R) CONVERT (R) CPU
CREATE (R) CROSS (R) CUBE
CURRENT CURRENT_DATE (R) CURRENT_TIME (R)
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP (R) CURRENT_USER (R) CURSOR (R)
CURSOR_NAME DATA DATABASE (R)
DATABASES (R) DATAFILE DATE
DATETIME DAY DAY_HOUR (R)
DAY_MICROSECOND (R) DAY_MINUTE (R) DAY_SECOND (R)
DEALLOCATE DEC (R) DECIMAL (R)
DECLARE (R) DEFAULT (R) DEFAULT_AUTH
DEFINER DELAYED (R) DELAY_KEY_WRITE
DELETE (R) DESC (R) DESCRIBE (R)
DES_KEY_FILE DETERMINISTIC (R) DIAGNOSTICS
DIRECTORY DISABLE DISCARD
DISK DISTINCT (R) DISTINCTROW (R)
DIV (R) DO DOUBLE (R)
DROP (R) DUAL (R) DUMPFILE
DUPLICATE DYNAMIC EACH (R)
ELSE (R) ELSEIF (R) ENABLE
ENCLOSED (R) ENCRYPTION[e] END
ENDS ENGINE ENGINES
ENUM ERROR ERRORS
ESCAPE ESCAPED (R) EVENT
EVENTS EVERY EXCHANGE
EXECUTE EXISTS (R) EXIT (R)
EXPANSION EXPIRE EXPLAIN (R)
EXPORT EXTENDED EXTENT_SIZE
FALSE (R) FAST FAULTS
FETCH (R) FIELDS FILE
FILE_BLOCK_SIZE[f] FILTER[g] FIRST
FIXED FLOAT (R) FLOAT4 (R)
FLOAT8 (R) FLUSH FOLLOWS[h]
FOR (R) FORCE (R) FOREIGN (R)
FORMAT FOUND FROM (R)
FULL FULLTEXT (R) FUNCTION
GENERAL GENERATED[i] (R) GEOMETRY
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION GET (R) GET_FORMAT
GLOBAL GRANT (R) GRANTS
GROUP (R) GROUP_REPLICATION[j] HANDLER
HASH HAVING (R) HELP
HIGH_PRIORITY (R) HOST HOSTS
HOUR HOUR_MICROSECOND (R) HOUR_MINUTE (R)
HOUR_SECOND (R) IDENTIFIED IF (R)
IGNORE (R) IGNORE_SERVER_IDS IMPORT
IN (R) INDEX (R) INDEXES
INFILE (R) INITIAL_SIZE INNER (R)
INOUT (R) INSENSITIVE (R) INSERT (R)
INSERT_METHOD INSTALL INSTANCE[k]
INT (R) INT1 (R) INT2 (R)
INT3 (R) INT4 (R) INT8 (R)
INTEGER (R) INTERVAL (R) INTO (R)
INVOKER IO IO_AFTER_GTIDS (R)
IO_BEFORE_GTIDS (R) IO_THREAD IPC
IS (R) ISOLATION ISSUER
ITERATE (R) JOIN (R) JSON[l]
KEY (R) KEYS (R) KEY_BLOCK_SIZE
KILL (R) LANGUAGE LAST
LEADING (R) LEAVE (R) LEAVES
LEFT (R) LESS LEVEL
LIKE (R) LIMIT (R) LINEAR (R)
LINES (R) LINESTRING LIST
LOAD (R) LOCAL LOCALTIME (R)
LOCALTIMESTAMP (R) LOCK (R) LOCKS
LOGFILE LOGS LONG (R)
LONGBLOB (R) LONGTEXT (R) LOOP (R)
LOW_PRIORITY (R) MASTER MASTER_AUTO_POSITION
MASTER_BIND (R) MASTER_CONNECT_RETRY MASTER_DELAY
MASTER_HEARTBEAT_PERIOD MASTER_HOST MASTER_LOG_FILE
MASTER_LOG_POS MASTER_PASSWORD MASTER_PORT
MASTER_RETRY_COUNT MASTER_SERVER_ID MASTER_SSL
MASTER_SSL_CA MASTER_SSL_CAPATH MASTER_SSL_CERT
MASTER_SSL_CIPHER MASTER_SSL_CRL MASTER_SSL_CRLPATH
MASTER_SSL_KEY MASTER_SSL_VERIFY_SERVER_CERT (R) MASTER_TLS_VERSION[m]
MASTER_USER MATCH (R) MAXVALUE (R)
MAX_CONNECTIONS_PER_HOUR MAX_QUERIES_PER_HOUR MAX_ROWS
MAX_SIZE MAX_STATEMENT_TIME[n] MAX_UPDATES_PER_HOUR
MAX_USER_CONNECTIONS MEDIUM MEDIUMBLOB (R)
MEDIUMINT (R) MEDIUMTEXT (R) MEMORY
MERGE MESSAGE_TEXT MICROSECOND
MIDDLEINT (R) MIGRATE MINUTE
MINUTE_MICROSECOND (R) MINUTE_SECOND (R) MIN_ROWS
MOD (R) MODE MODIFIES (R)
MODIFY MONTH MULTILINESTRING
MULTIPOINT MULTIPOLYGON MUTEX
MYSQL_ERRNO NAME NAMES
NATIONAL NATURAL (R) NCHAR
NDB NDBCLUSTER NEVER[o]
NEW NEXT NO
NODEGROUP NONBLOCKING[p] NONE
NOT (R) NO_WAIT NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG (R)
NULL (R) NUMBER NUMERIC (R)
NVARCHAR OFFSET OLD_PASSWORD[q]
ON (R) ONE ONLY
OPEN OPTIMIZE (R) OPTIMIZER_COSTS[r] (R)
OPTION (R) OPTIONALLY (R) OPTIONS
OR (R) ORDER (R) OUT (R)
OUTER (R) OUTFILE (R) OWNER
PACK_KEYS PAGE PARSER
PARSE_GCOL_EXPR[s] PARTIAL PARTITION (R)
PARTITIONING PARTITIONS PASSWORD
PHASE PLUGIN PLUGINS
PLUGIN_DIR POINT POLYGON
PORT PRECEDES[t] PRECISION (R)
PREPARE PRESERVE PREV
PRIMARY (R) PRIVILEGES PROCEDURE (R)
PROCESSLIST PROFILE PROFILES
PROXY PURGE (R) QUARTER
QUERY QUICK RANGE (R)
READ (R) READS (R) READ_ONLY
READ_WRITE (R) REAL (R) REBUILD
RECOVER REDOFILE REDO_BUFFER_SIZE
REDUNDANT REFERENCES (R) REGEXP (R)
RELAY RELAYLOG RELAY_LOG_FILE
RELAY_LOG_POS RELAY_THREAD RELEASE (R)
RELOAD REMOVE RENAME (R)
REORGANIZE REPAIR REPEAT (R)
REPEATABLE REPLACE (R) REPLICATE_DO_DB[u]
REPLICATE_DO_TABLE[v] REPLICATE_IGNORE_DB[w] REPLICATE_IGNORE_TABLE[x]
REPLICATE_REWRITE_DB[y] REPLICATE_WILD_DO_TABLE[z] REPLICATE_WILD_IGNORE_TABLE[aa]
REPLICATION REQUIRE (R) RESET
RESIGNAL (R) RESTORE RESTRICT (R)
RESUME RETURN (R) RETURNED_SQLSTATE
RETURNS REVERSE REVOKE (R)
RIGHT (R) RLIKE (R) ROLLBACK
ROLLUP ROTATE[ab] ROUTINE
ROW ROWS ROW_COUNT
ROW_FORMAT RTREE SAVEPOINT
SCHEDULE SCHEMA (R) SCHEMAS (R)
SCHEMA_NAME SECOND SECOND_MICROSECOND (R)
SECURITY SELECT (R) SENSITIVE (R)
SEPARATOR (R) SERIAL SERIALIZABLE
SERVER SESSION SET (R)
SHARE SHOW (R) SHUTDOWN
SIGNAL (R) SIGNED SIMPLE
SLAVE SLOW SMALLINT (R)
SNAPSHOT SOCKET SOME
SONAME SOUNDS SOURCE
SPATIAL (R) SPECIFIC (R) SQL (R)
SQLEXCEPTION (R) SQLSTATE (R) SQLWARNING (R)
SQL_AFTER_GTIDS SQL_AFTER_MTS_GAPS SQL_BEFORE_GTIDS
SQL_BIG_RESULT (R) SQL_BUFFER_RESULT SQL_CACHE
SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS (R) SQL_NO_CACHE SQL_SMALL_RESULT (R)
SQL_THREAD SQL_TSI_DAY SQL_TSI_HOUR
SQL_TSI_MINUTE SQL_TSI_MONTH SQL_TSI_QUARTER
SQL_TSI_SECOND SQL_TSI_WEEK SQL_TSI_YEAR
SSL (R) STACKED START
STARTING (R) STARTS STATS_AUTO_RECALC
STATS_PERSISTENT STATS_SAMPLE_PAGES STATUS
STOP STORAGE STORED[ac] (R)
STRAIGHT_JOIN (R) STRING SUBCLASS_ORIGIN
SUBJECT SUBPARTITION SUBPARTITIONS
SUPER SUSPEND SWAPS
SWITCHES TABLE (R) TABLES
TABLESPACE TABLE_CHECKSUM TABLE_NAME
TEMPORARY TEMPTABLE TERMINATED (R)
TEXT THAN THEN (R)
TIME TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMPADD
TIMESTAMPDIFF TINYBLOB (R) TINYINT (R)
TINYTEXT (R) TO (R) TRAILING (R)
TRANSACTION TRIGGER (R) TRIGGERS
TRUE (R) TRUNCATE TYPE
TYPES UNCOMMITTED UNDEFINED
UNDO (R) UNDOFILE UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE
UNICODE UNINSTALL UNION (R)
UNIQUE (R) UNKNOWN UNLOCK (R)
UNSIGNED (R) UNTIL UPDATE (R)
UPGRADE USAGE (R) USE (R)
USER USER_RESOURCES USE_FRM
USING (R) UTC_DATE (R) UTC_TIME (R)
UTC_TIMESTAMP (R) VALIDATION[ad] VALUE
VALUES (R) VARBINARY (R) VARCHAR (R)
VARCHARACTER (R) VARIABLES VARYING (R)
VIEW VIRTUAL[ae] (R) WAIT
WARNINGS WEEK WEIGHT_STRING
WHEN (R) WHERE (R) WHILE (R)
WITH (R) WITHOUT[af] WORK
WRAPPER WRITE (R) X509
XA XID[ag] XML
XOR (R) YEAR YEAR_MONTH (R)
ZEROFILL (R)

[a] ACCOUNT: added in 5.7.6 (nonreserved)

[b] ALWAYS: added in 5.7.6 (nonreserved)

[c] CHANNEL: added in 5.7.6 (nonreserved)

[d] COMPRESSION: added in 5.7.8 (nonreserved)

[e] ENCRYPTION: added in 5.7.11 (nonreserved)

[f] FILE_BLOCK_SIZE: added in 5.7.6 (nonreserved)

[g] FILTER: added in 5.7.3 (nonreserved)

[h] FOLLOWS: added in 5.7.2 (nonreserved)

[i] GENERATED: added in 5.7.6 (reserved)

[j] GROUP_REPLICATION: added in 5.7.6 (nonreserved)

[k] INSTANCE: added in 5.7.11 (nonreserved)

[l] JSON: added in 5.7.8 (nonreserved)

[m] MASTER_TLS_VERSION: added in 5.7.10 (nonreserved)

[n] MAX_STATEMENT_TIME: added in 5.7.4 (nonreserved); removed in 5.7.8

[o] NEVER: added in 5.7.4 (nonreserved)

[p] NONBLOCKING: removed in 5.7.6

[q] OLD_PASSWORD: removed in 5.7.5

[r] OPTIMIZER_COSTS: added in 5.7.5 (reserved)

[s] PARSE_GCOL_EXPR: added in 5.7.6 (reserved); became nonreserved in 5.7.8

[t] PRECEDES: added in 5.7.2 (nonreserved)

[u] REPLICATE_DO_DB: added in 5.7.3 (nonreserved)

[v] REPLICATE_DO_TABLE: added in 5.7.3 (nonreserved)

[w] REPLICATE_IGNORE_DB: added in 5.7.3 (nonreserved)

[x] REPLICATE_IGNORE_TABLE: added in 5.7.3 (nonreserved)

[y] REPLICATE_REWRITE_DB: added in 5.7.3 (nonreserved)

[z] REPLICATE_WILD_DO_TABLE: added in 5.7.3 (nonreserved)

[aa] REPLICATE_WILD_IGNORE_TABLE: added in 5.7.3 (nonreserved)

[ab] ROTATE: added in 5.7.11 (nonreserved)

[ac] STORED: added in 5.7.6 (reserved)

[ad] VALIDATION: added in 5.7.5 (nonreserved)

[ae] VIRTUAL: added in 5.7.6 (reserved)

[af] WITHOUT: added in 5.7.5 (nonreserved)

[ag] XID: added in 5.7.5 (nonreserved)


The following table shows the keywords and reserved words that are new in MySQL 5.7. Reserved keywords are marked with (R).

Table 9.3 New Keywords and Reserved Words in MySQL 5.7 compared to MySQL 5.6

ACCOUNT ALWAYS CHANNEL
COMPRESSION ENCRYPTION FILE_BLOCK_SIZE
FILTER FOLLOWS GENERATED (R)
GROUP_REPLICATION INSTANCE JSON
MASTER_TLS_VERSION NEVER OPTIMIZER_COSTS (R)
PARSE_GCOL_EXPR PRECEDES REPLICATE_DO_DB
REPLICATE_DO_TABLE REPLICATE_IGNORE_DB REPLICATE_IGNORE_TABLE
REPLICATE_REWRITE_DB REPLICATE_WILD_DO_TABLE REPLICATE_WILD_IGNORE_TABLE
ROTATE STACKED STORED (R)
VALIDATION VIRTUAL (R) WITHOUT
XID


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