A global transaction identifier (GTID) is a unique identifier created and associated with each transaction committed on the server of origin (source). This identifier is unique not only to the server on which it originated, but is unique across all servers in a given replication setup. There is a 1-to-1 mapping between all transactions and all GTIDs.
A GTID is represented as a pair of coordinates, separated by a
colon character (
:), as shown here:
GTID = source_id:transaction_id
source_id identifies the
originating server. Normally, the server's
server_uuid is used for this
transaction_id is a
sequence number determined by the order in which the transaction
was committed on this server; for example, the first transaction
to be committed has
1 as its
transaction_id, and the tenth
transaction to be committed on the same originating server is
10. It is not possible for a transaction to
0 as a sequence number in a GTID. For
example, the twenty-third transaction to be committed originally
on the server with the UUID
3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562 has this
This format is used to represent GTIDs in the output of
statements such as
STATUS as well as in the binary log. They can also be
seen when viewing the log file with
or in the output from
As written in the output of statements such as
SHOW MASTER STATUS or
SHOW SLAVE STATUS, a sequence of GTIDs
originating from the same server may be collapsed into a single
expression, as shown here.
The example just shown represents the first through fifth
transactions originating on the MySQL Server whose
In MySQL 5.6.6 and later, this format is also used to supply the
argument required by the
A GTID set is a set of global transaction identifiers which is represented as shown here:
gtid_set: uuid_set [, uuid_set] ... | '' uuid_set: uuid:interval[:interval]... uuid: hhhhhhhh-hhhh-hhhh-hhhh-hhhhhhhhhhhh h: [0-9|A-F] interval: n[-n] (n >= 1)
GTID sets are used in the MySQL Server in several ways. For
example, the values stored by the
gtid_purged system variables
are represented as GTID sets. In addition, the functions
GTID_SUBTRACT() require GTID
sets as input.
GTIDs are always preserved between source and replica. This means that you can always determine the source for any transaction applied on any replica by examining its binary log. In addition, once a transaction with a given GTID is committed on a given server, any subsequent transaction having the same GTID is ignored by that server. Thus, a transaction committed on the source can be applied no more than once on the replica, which helps to guarantee consistency.
When GTIDs are in use, the replica has no need for any
nonlocal data, such as the name of a file on the source and a
position within that file. All necessary information for
synchronizing with the source is obtained directly from the
replication data stream. From the perspective of the database
administrator or developer, GTIDs entirely take the place of
the file-offset pairs previously required to determine points
for starting, stopping, or resuming the flow of data between
source and replica. This means that, when you are using GTIDs
for replication, you do not need (or want) to include
MASTER_LOG_POS options in the
CHANGE MASTER TO statement used
to direct a replica to replicate from a given source; in place
of these options, it is necessary only to enable the
MASTER_AUTO_POSITION option introduced in
MySQL 5.6.5. For the exact steps needed to configure and start
sources and replicas using GTID-based replication, see
Section 2.3.2, “Setting Up Replication Using GTIDs”.
The generation and lifecycle of a GTID consists of the following steps:
A transaction is executed and committed on the source.
This transaction is assigned a GTID using the source's UUID and the smallest nonzero transaction sequence number not yet used on this server; the GTID is written to the source's binary log (immediately preceding the transaction itself in the log).
After the binary log data is transmitted to the replica and stored in the replica's relay log (using established mechanisms for this process—see Chapter 5, Replication Implementation, for details), the replica reads the GTID and sets the value of its
gtid_nextsystem variable as this GTID. This tells the replica that the next transaction must be logged using this GTID.
The replica sets
gtid_nextin a session context.
The replica checks to make sure that this GTID has not already been used to log a transaction in its own binary log. If and only if this GTID has not been used, the replica then writes the GTID and applies the transaction (and writes the transaction to its binary log). By reading and checking the transaction's GTID first, before processing the transaction itself, the replica guarantees not only that no previous transaction having this GTID has been applied on the replica, but also that no other session has already read this GTID but has not yet committed the associated transaction. In other words, multiple clients are not permitted to apply the same transaction concurrently.
gtid_nextis not empty, the replica does not attempt to generate a GTID for this transaction but instead writes the GTID stored in this variable, that is, the GTID obtained from the source, immediately preceding the transaction in its binary log.