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MySQL Connectors provide connectivity to the MySQL server for client programs. APIs provide low-level access to the MySQL protocol and MySQL resources. Both Connectors and the APIs enable you to connect and execute MySQL statements from another language or environment, including ODBC, Java (JDBC), Perl, Python, PHP, Ruby, and native C and embedded MySQL instances.
Connector version numbers do not correlate with MySQL Server version numbers. See Table 21.2, “MySQL Connector Versions and MySQL Server Versions”.
Oracle develops a number of connectors:
Connector/ODBC provides driver support for connecting to MySQL using the Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) API. Support is available for ODBC connectivity from Windows, Unix, and Mac OS X platforms.
Connector/Net enables developers to create .NET applications that connect to MySQL. Connector/Net implements a fully functional ADO.NET interface and provides support for use with ADO.NET aware tools. Applications that use Connector/Net can be written in any supported .NET language.
The MySQL Visual Studio Plugin works with Connector/Net and Visual Studio 2005. The plugin is a MySQL DDEX Provider, which means that you can use the schema and data manipulation tools available in Visual Studio to create and edit objects within a MySQL database.
Connector/J provides driver support for connecting to MySQL from Java applications using the standard Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API.
Connector/Python provides driver support for connecting to MySQL from Python applications using an API that is compliant with the Python DB API version 2.0. No additional Python modules or MySQL client libraries are required.
Connector/C++ enables C++ applications to connect to MySQL.
Connector/C is a standalone
replacement for the MySQL Client Library
libmysqlclient), to be used for C
For direct access to using MySQL natively within a C application, there are two methods:
The C API provides low-level access
to the MySQL client/server protocol through the
libmysqlclient client library. This is the
primary method used to connect to an instance of the MySQL
server, and is used both by MySQL command-line clients and many
of the MySQL Connectors and third-party APIs detailed here.
libmysqlclient is included in MySQL
distributions and in MySQL Connector/C distributions.
libmysqld is an embedded MySQL server library
that enables you to embed an instance of the MySQL server into
your C applications.
libmysqld is included in MySQL distributions,
but not in MySQL Connector/C distributions.
To access MySQL from a C application, or to build an interface to MySQL for a language not supported by the Connectors or APIs in this chapter, the C API is where to start. A number of programmer's utilities are available to help with the process; see Section 4.7, “MySQL Program Development Utilities”.
The remaining APIs described in this chapter provide an interface to MySQL from specific application languages. These third-party solutions are not developed or supported by Oracle. Basic information on their usage and abilities is provided here for reference purposes only.
All the third-party language APIs are developed using one of two
libmysqlclient or by implementing
a native driver. The two solutions offer
offers complete compatibility with MySQL because it uses the
same libraries as the MySQL client applications. However, the
feature set is limited to the implementation and interfaces
libmysqlclient and the
performance may be lower as data is copied between the native
language, and the MySQL API components.
Native drivers are an implementation of the MySQL network protocol entirely within the host language or environment. Native drivers are fast, as there is less copying of data between components, and they can offer advanced functionality not available through the standard MySQL API. Native drivers are also easier for end users to build and deploy because no copy of the MySQL client libraries is needed to build the native driver components.
Table 21.1, “MySQL APIs and Interfaces” lists many of the libraries and interfaces available for MySQL. Table 21.2, “MySQL Connector Versions and MySQL Server Versions” shows which MySQL Server versions each connector supports.
Table 21.1 MySQL APIs and Interfaces
|Ada||GNU Ada MySQL Bindings||See MySQL Bindings for GNU Ada|
|C||C API||See Section 21.8, “MySQL C API”.|
|C||Connector/C||Replacement for ||See MySQL Connector/C Developer Guide.|
|C++||Connector/C++||See MySQL Connector/C++ Developer Guide.|
|MySQL++||See MySQL++ Web site.|
|MySQL wrapped||See MySQL wrapped.|
|Cocoa||MySQL-Cocoa||Compatible with the Objective-C Cocoa environment. See http://mysql-cocoa.sourceforge.net/|
|D||MySQL for D||See MySQL for D.|
|Eiffel||Eiffel MySQL||See Section 21.14, “MySQL Eiffel Wrapper”.|
|Haskell||Haskell MySQL Bindings||Native Driver||See Brian O'Sullivan's pure Haskell MySQL bindings.|
|See MySQL driver for Haskell .|
|Java/JDBC||Connector/J||Native Driver||See MySQL Connector/J Developer Guide.|
|.NET/Mono||Connector/Net||Native Driver||See MySQL Connector/Net Developer Guide.|
|Objective Caml||OBjective Caml MySQL Bindings||See MySQL Bindings for Objective Caml.|
|Octave||Database bindings for GNU Octave||See Database bindings for GNU Octave.|
|ODBC||Connector/ODBC||See MySQL Connector/ODBC Developer Guide.|
|Perl||See Section 21.10, “MySQL Perl API”.|
|PHP||See Original MySQL API (|
|See MySQL Improved Extension (|
|See MySQL Functions (PDO_MYSQL) (|
|PDO mysqlnd||Native Driver|
|Python||Connector/Python||Native Driver||See MySQL Connector/Python Developer Guide.|
|MySQLdb||See Section 21.11, “MySQL Python API”.|
|Ruby/MySQL||Native Driver||See Section 21.12.2, “The Ruby/MySQL API”.|
|Tcl||MySQLtcl||See Section 21.13, “MySQL Tcl API”.|
Table 21.2 MySQL Connector Versions and MySQL Server Versions
|Connector||Connector version||MySQL Server version|
|Connector/C||6.1.0 GA||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0, 4.1|
|Connector/C++||1.0.5 GA||5.6, 5.5, 5.1|
|Connector/J||5.1.8||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0, 4.1|
|Connector/Net||6.5||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0|
|Connector/Net||6.4||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0|
|Connector/Net||6.3||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0|
|Connector/Net||6.2 (No longer supported)||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0|
|Connector/Net||6.1 (No longer supported)||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0|
|Connector/Net||6.0 (No longer supported)||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0|
|Connector/Net||5.2 (No longer supported)||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0|
|Connector/Net||1.0 (No longer supported)||5.0, 4.0|
|Connector/ODBC||5.1||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0, 4.1.1+|
|Connector/ODBC||3.51 (Unicode not supported)||5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0, 4.1|