MySQL 8.4 C API Developer Guide  /  ...  /  Multiple Statement Execution Support

3.6.3 Multiple Statement Execution Support

By default, mysql_real_query() and mysql_query() interpret their statement string argument as a single statement to be executed, and you process the result according to whether the statement produces a result set (a set of rows, as for SELECT) or an affected-rows count (as for INSERT, UPDATE, and so forth).

MySQL also supports the execution of a string containing multiple statements separated by semicolon (;) characters. This capability is enabled by special options that are specified either when you connect to the server with mysql_real_connect() or after connecting by calling mysql_set_server_option().

Executing a multiple-statement string can produce multiple result sets or row-count indicators. Processing these results involves a different approach than for the single-statement case: After handling the result from the first statement, it is necessary to check whether more results exist and process them in turn if so. To support multiple-result processing, the C API includes the mysql_more_results() and mysql_next_result() functions. These functions are used at the end of a loop that iterates as long as more results are available. Failure to process the result this way may result in a dropped connection to the server.

Multiple-result processing also is required if you execute CALL statements for stored procedures. Results from a stored procedure have these characteristics:

  • Statements within the procedure may produce result sets (for example, if it executes SELECT statements). These result sets are returned in the order that they are produced as the procedure executes.

    In general, the caller cannot know how many result sets a procedure will return. Procedure execution may depend on loops or conditional statements that cause the execution path to differ from one call to the next. Therefore, you must be prepared to retrieve multiple results.

  • The final result from the procedure is a status result that includes no result set. The status indicates whether the procedure succeeded or an error occurred.

The multiple statement and result capabilities can be used only with mysql_real_query() or mysql_query(). They cannot be used with the prepared statement interface. Prepared statement handlers are defined to work only with strings that contain a single statement. See Chapter 6, C API Prepared Statement Interface.

To enable multiple-statement execution and result processing, the following options may be used:

  • The mysql_real_connect() function has a flags argument for which two option values are relevant:

    • CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS enables the client program to process multiple results. This option must be enabled if you execute CALL statements for stored procedures that produce result sets. Otherwise, such procedures result in an error Error 1312 (0A000): PROCEDURE proc_name can't return a result set in the given context. CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS is enabled by default.

    • CLIENT_MULTI_STATEMENTS enables mysql_real_query() and mysql_query() to execute statement strings containing multiple statements separated by semicolons. This option also enables CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS implicitly, so a flags argument of CLIENT_MULTI_STATEMENTS to mysql_real_connect() is equivalent to an argument of CLIENT_MULTI_STATEMENTS | CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS. That is, CLIENT_MULTI_STATEMENTS is sufficient to enable multiple-statement execution and all multiple-result processing.

  • After the connection to the server has been established, you can use the mysql_set_server_option() function to enable or disable multiple-statement execution by passing it an argument of MYSQL_OPTION_MULTI_STATEMENTS_ON or MYSQL_OPTION_MULTI_STATEMENTS_OFF. Enabling multiple-statement execution with this function also enables processing of simple results for a multiple-statement string where each statement produces a single result, but is not sufficient to permit processing of stored procedures that produce result sets.

The following procedure outlines a suggested strategy for handling multiple statements:

  1. Pass CLIENT_MULTI_STATEMENTS to mysql_real_connect(), to fully enable multiple-statement execution and multiple-result processing.

  2. After calling mysql_real_query() or mysql_query() and verifying that it succeeds, enter a loop within which you process statement results.

  3. For each iteration of the loop, handle the current statement result, retrieving either a result set or an affected-rows count. If an error occurs, exit the loop.

  4. At the end of the loop, call mysql_next_result() to check whether another result exists and initiate retrieval for it if so. If no more results are available, exit the loop.

One possible implementation of the preceding strategy is shown following. The final part of the loop can be reduced to a simple test of whether mysql_next_result() returns nonzero. The code as written distinguishes between no more results and an error, which enables a message to be printed for the latter occurrence.

/* connect to server with the CLIENT_MULTI_STATEMENTS option */
if (mysql_real_connect (mysql, host_name, user_name, password,
    db_name, port_num, socket_name, CLIENT_MULTI_STATEMENTS) == NULL)
  printf("mysql_real_connect() failed\n");

/* execute multiple statements */
status = mysql_query(mysql,
                     "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS test_table;\
                      CREATE TABLE test_table(id INT);\
                      INSERT INTO test_table VALUES(10);\
                      UPDATE test_table SET id=20 WHERE id=10;\
                      SELECT * FROM test_table;\
                      DROP TABLE test_table");
if (status)
  printf("Could not execute statement(s)");

/* process each statement result */
do {
  /* did current statement return data? */
  result = mysql_store_result(mysql);
  if (result)
    /* yes; process rows and free the result set */
    process_result_set(mysql, result);
  else          /* no result set or error */
    if (mysql_field_count(mysql) == 0)
      printf("%lld rows affected\n",
    else  /* some error occurred */
      printf("Could not retrieve result set\n");
  /* more results? -1 = no, >0 = error, 0 = yes (keep looping) */
  if ((status = mysql_next_result(mysql)) > 0)
    printf("Could not execute statement\n");
} while (status == 0);