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MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Semisynchronous Replication

17.3.9 Semisynchronous Replication

In addition to the built-in asynchronous replication, MySQL 5.6 supports an interface to semisynchronous replication that is implemented by plugins. This section discusses what semisynchronous replication is and how it works. The following sections cover the administrative interface to semisynchronous replication and how to install, configure, and monitor it.

MySQL replication by default is asynchronous. The source writes events to its binary log and replicas request them when they are ready. The source does not know whether or when a replica has retrieved and processed the transactions, and there is no guarantee that any event will ever reach any replica. With asynchronous replication, if the source crashes, transactions that it has committed might not have been transmitted to any replica. Failover from source to replica in this case might result in failover to a server that is missing transactions relative to the source.

With fully synchronous replication, when a source commits a transaction, all replicas must also have committed the transaction before the source returns to the session that performed the transaction. Fully synchronous replication means failover from the source to any replica is possible at any time. The drawback of fully synchronous replication is that there might be a lot of delay to complete a transaction.

Semisynchronous replication falls between asynchronous and fully synchronous replication. The source waits until at least one replica has received and logged the events, and then commits the transaction. The source does not wait for all replicas to acknowledge receipt, and it requires only an acknowledgement from the replicas, not that the events have been fully executed and committed on the replica side. Semisynchronous replication therefore guarantees that if the source crashes, all the transactions that it has committed have been transmitted to at least one replica.

Important

With semisynchronous replication, if the source crashes and a failover to a replica is carried out, the failed source should not be reused as the replication source server, and should be discarded. It could have transactions that were not acknowledged by any replica, which were therefore not committed before the failover.

The performance impact of semisynchronous replication compared to asynchronous replication is the tradeoff for increased data integrity. The amount of slowdown is at least the TCP/IP roundtrip time to send the commit to the replica and wait for the acknowledgment of receipt by the replica. This means that semisynchronous replication works best for close servers communicating over fast networks, and worst for distant servers communicating over slow networks. Semisynchronous replication also places a rate limit on busy sessions by constraining the speed at which binary log events can be sent from source to replica. When one user is too busy, this will slow it down, which can be useful in some deployment situations.

Semisynchronous replication between a source and its replicas operates as follows:

  • A replica indicates whether it is semisynchronous-capable when it connects to the source.

  • If semisynchronous replication is enabled on the source side and there is at least one semisynchronous replica, a thread that performs a transaction commit on the source blocks after the commit is done and waits until at least one semisynchronous replica acknowledges that it has received all events for the transaction, or until a timeout occurs.

  • The replica acknowledges receipt of a transaction's events only after the events have been written to its relay log and flushed to disk.

  • If a timeout occurs without any replica having acknowledged the transaction, the source reverts to asynchronous replication. When at least one semisynchronous replica catches up, the source returns to semisynchronous replication.

  • Semisynchronous replication must be enabled on both the source and replica sides. If semisynchronous replication is disabled on the source, or enabled on the source but on no replicas, the source uses asynchronous replication.

While the source is blocking (waiting for acknowledgment from a replica after having performed a commit), it does not return to the session that performed the transaction. When the block ends, the source returns to the session, which then can proceed to execute other statements. At this point, the transaction has committed on the source side, and receipt of its events has been acknowledged by at least one replica.

Blocking also occurs after rollbacks that are written to the binary log, which occurs when a transaction that modifies nontransactional tables is rolled back. The rolled-back transaction is logged even though it has no effect for transactional tables because the modifications to the nontransactional tables cannot be rolled back and must be sent to replicas.

For statements that do not occur in transactional context (that is, when no transaction has been started with START TRANSACTION or SET autocommit = 0), autocommit is enabled and each statement commits implicitly. With semisynchronous replication, the source blocks after committing each such statement, just as it does for explicit transaction commits.